Different pathogens and microbial species with toxic effects on the health are released into the environment.Interactions among these pollutants are complicated, unforeseeable and thus mayhave a serious influence on the environment. Increase of microorganism resistance to generally usedchemotherapeutics and highly severe hygienic standards in hospitals compelfinding and developing of new agents to be used in disinfection. Therefore, environmentaldisinfection by the development of environmentally friendly methodsplays a crucial role in the prevention ofinfectious diseases. Semiconductor photocatalysis has recentlyattracted great attentions for environmental remediation and purification throughadvanced oxidation processes 1,2.
Heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysis was reported as a suitable approach to detoxification from both industrial and biological pollutants in many researches 3,4. Among the semiconductors investigated, anatase TiO2is one of the most commonly used materials forphotocatalytic degradation of chemicaland microbiological pollutants due to its non-toxic nature, low cost, abundance, UV-drivenhigh activity, photoand thermal stability 5,6. Nevertheless, the photocatalytic activity ofTiO2 is constrained by two main problems which are the wide band gap (Ebg) that limit its application to ultra-violet region and the fast recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes 7,8.Both of these drawbacks have been studied to resolving by using several approaches such as doping the TiO2 with metallic or nonmetallic elements, dye sensitization and surface coupling with other semiconductorsto form a heterojunction9-11, that cause of improving the photocatalyticactivity of TiO2 for degradation of organic pollutants by shiftingthe light absorption of TiO2 to visible-light region and retardingthe recombination of electron and hole 9,12.