Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge for humans are very important for achieving a healthy lifestyle. First of all, this study can help those athletes especially understand about dietary habits among students who can apply them in daily life. Dietary habits are the consumption of remaining food in daily food, which avoids taking fast food and junk food. It is important to improve nutritional knowledge, such as food, such as meal intake, which is important for many aspects (Nor Hasnida Binti Abdul Halim & Mubarrak Yusof, 2014) Knowledge of nutrition can be obtained from many sources such as magazines, internet, high friends / family, coach, doctor, newspaper. We provide the basis of knowledge to self athlete (Abood, Black & Coster 2008), Nutrition knowledge is the knowledge of nutrients and nutrition that the functions of those nutrients work in the body, such as energy, development and repair, or antioxidants and various defense mechanisms they work in. When a person is aware of fulfilling these nutritional needs, then it provides the convenience of food options which helps in increasing health or health, so that there is no use of more or less nutrients which is ill Linked to health (Worsley, 2002). Nutritional knowledge has a major effect on dietary habits and dietary choices. Insufficient knowledge contributes to inadequate food and choices in elite athletes.(Cupisti et al, 2002). Physical activity and nutritional energy, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water, generally applies to physically active individuals of both sexes. Other nutritional requirements for women are usually associated with reproduction function, in particular, menstruation, lactation and pregnant women. Also, the nutritional form of prevention and treatment for pre-menstrual syndrome, secondary amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Women’s blood loss through menstruation is a high incidence of iron deficiency found in the female population. And other factors include dietary iron intake and low absorption of iron due to food blockers (coffee, eggs, bran and other foods)(Helen Lenskyj, 2002). Other factors affect the menstrual cycle during the increase in physical activity, and contribute to poor nutritional status of the population, together with poor eating habits, menstruation and teenage pregnancy. According to the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) Report (2003), 69% of adolescent girls have anemia. Micro nutrient deficiency disorders in adolescence stage decreased immunity to disease and weak reproduction function.(Bhaskaram, 2001) Playing the game during any phase of life is no longer “a loss” for women, however, female athletes may be suffering from certain sports related health problems, including menstrual disorders. Menstruation is characteristic of hormones-induced changes within the reproductive organs each month. On the first day of menstruation, each cycle ends before the first day of the stars and next menstruation. The average length of the menstrual cycle is 28 days, while within a few days the regular cycle can also be encountered. (Karacan et al, 2013). The amount of time spent in this training can have an impact on their health. Most athletes will spend several hours training each week. Excessive exercise can be related to the spread of a disorder, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. The intention of this review is to determine whether the amount of time spent in the exercise at the risk of development of female athlete triad (Carla Southwick, 2008). Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstrual cycle for 3 to 6 consecutive months or no menstrual cycle of 16 years (Gold, 2002). Some causes of amenorrhea may include that contribute to exercise, pregnancy, thyroid disease and menstrual dysfunction include: energy balance, intensity of exercise and training practices, body weight and structure, waste food Behavior, and physical and emotional stress levels. (Manore, 2002). Recent studies have shown that women who work hard can develop reproductive disorders, including delayed menarche, short luteal phases and amenorrhea. (Ding, et al, 1988). Menstruation is part of the female reproductive cycle, which starts when the girls become mature during puberty. During menstruation, a woman gets bleeding from a uterus through vagina. The menstrual hypothalamus depends on the pituitary-ovarian function, where the amount of blood depends on the contraction of the uterus. The period of menstruation is not 3 to 7 days pregnant in each cycle, and then every period starts approximately every 28 days. The average limit for most girls ranges from 10 to 14 years to 45 to 55 years. Geographical conditions, racial factors, nutritional standards, environmental impact and strong physical activity can affect the beginning of all menarche; a woman will have 500 duration in her lifetime. Estimated blood loss is between 50 ml and 200 ml. (Adhikari P 2007)
Proposal is designed
with the following objectives:
1. To compare the nutritional knowledge of
eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes and non athletes
2. To compare the dietary
habits of eumenorrheic
and amenorrheic athletes and non athletes
3. To determine the
menstrual history of eumenorrheic
and amenorrheic athletes and non athletes
4. The relational ship between nutritional knowledge, dietary
habits and menstrual history of eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes and non athletes
Limitation of the study
The study will be conducted only on menstruating female athletes
and non athletes between the ages 13 – 18years.
Only those subjects who have started
their menstrual cycle in involve my study.
Significance of the study
· To provide awareness regarding nutritional
knowledge eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes and
Purpose of the
The purpose of this study is to compare Nutritional Knowledge,
Dietary Habits, Menstrual History of The Eumenorrheic and Amenorrheic Athletes
and Non Athletes
The sample will be random for this study and includes female athletes
and non-athletes. All participants are students of the district Ambala. The
target population for this study was in women’s school students.
Cupisti, (2002). The aim of this study is to investigate the dietary structure and nutritional knowledge of 60 athletes and 59 non-athlete teenage females (age, 14-18 years) using a 3-day food recall method. Consumption of daily energy reported was similar to athlete and non-athlete, but less than recommended and estimated requirements. In athletes, energy supplies were more than non-athletes with breakfast. Consumption of energy from carbohydrate was high and compared to non-athletes, lipids were less in athletes. Athletes also showed high fiber iron and vitamin A reports compared to non-athletes, consuming calcium, iron and zinc in both groups had less than 100% RDA. Athletes gave a slightly higher rate of nutrition knowledge questionnaire (77.6 vs. 71.6%, p <.01) compared to non-athletes, with the correct answers. Considering intake and nutrition in the diet of adolescents, some misconceptions and lack of nutrients are seen in the study of adolescents, but the results of athletes are very good in non-athletes, which can be found on dietary habits and nutritional knowledge. Frederick & Hawkins, (1992). The objective of the study is to compare the bone density, nutritional knowledge and behavior, dietary practices of four groups of women: 18 postmen women, 13 members of a college track team, and 14 non-athletic college women and 14 college-old dancers. Personal information questionnaire to be used, 24 hour dietary recall method, a meal food frequency questionnaire, nutrition knowledge test and an attitude survey; The measurement of the density of the spinal cord of the subjects was also taken. The mean (+/- 0.5 standard error SEM). The nutritional knowledge score of dancers (22.5) was significantly lower than the average score of postmenopausal women (28.5), non-athlete (29.7), and track team members 26.5). Dancers reported eating less mean (+/- 4.0 SEM) servings of high calcium foods per month (43) compared to postmenopausal women (77), non-athletes (66) or members of the track team (73). The track team members had a significant high mean (+/- 0.2 SEM) anorexia / bulimia score (3.7) compared to Postmenopausal women (2.5), non-athletes (2.1), or dancers (2.2). There were no significant differences in the bone mineral density between the four groups and the high calcium content was eaten, there were considerable correlations with the nutritional knowledge score (R = .38) and attitude score (R = .32), but the nutritional knowledge and attitude Scores were not significantly correlated with each other. The members of the track team have used significantly more in comparison to women in all other groups - Mean (+/- 40 SEM) minute practice was 700 minutes / week for members of the track team, 79 minutes / week for postmenopausal For women, 92 minutes / week non-athletes, and dancers, experienced more than 500 minutes / week - and also the most amenorrhea. Arazi & Hosseini, (2012). The goal of study is to study the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of collegiate and non-collegiate athletes in Iran's Amount City. 130 collegiate and non-collegiate athlete males and 120 collegiate and non-collegiate athletes randomly distributed nutritional knowledge and habit of questionnaire. The questionnaire included 15 nutritional knowledge questions and 25 nutritional questions. The collected data was tested by T-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient (P <.05). The correct response rate for sport nutrition and general nutrition was in collegiate athlete males (57.15, 52.5%) and athlete females (58.14, 54.85%); Non-collegiate athlete males (41.55; 39.86%) and athlete females (42.11, 40.66%), nutritional scores in men and women of collegiate athlete mean much higher than non-collegiate athlete male and female. significant differences in collegiate and non-collegiate athletes (p <.05) The study of knowledge of Iran's non-collegiate athletes was lesser than the collegiate athletes. Nutritional knowledge and behavior of non-collegiate athletes in Iran need to be improved. Hopkins, et al; (1991). The nutritional knowledge and dietary habits questionnaire was completed by 122 New Zealand (NZ) at the elite and non-elite class (entertainment level). The elite athletes were close to the NZ Nutrition Guidelines in comparison to the non-specific group in high nutrition knowledge scores and their dietary health habits. Nutritional knowledge was correlated with moderately health habits (R = 0.44, P <0.01), and this relationship is significantly strong (P <0.01) among non-athletes (R = 0.62) compared to elite athletes (R = 0.23) Dena Maureen Block, (1999). The conducted of this study of the menstrual irregularities of female teenage high school cross-country runners, age of 13-18 year. Data was collected with subjects' age, years of school, exercise history, menstrual history, training and nutritional information. The status of menstruation was determined for at least one year (N = 17), and another group (abnormal) (N = 18) for a group (normal) menstrual period. 20 item questionnaires were used. Nutrition knowledge question topics such as fluid and hydration, nutritional supplement, pre-competition food, special dietary concerns and general nutrition body structure were evaluated with age, gender and specific skin. No significant difference was observed (P> .05) T-tests were determining statistical significant differences in the number of nutrition knowledge between the two groups. The analysis of Chi-Square was comparing the individual questions. It has been concluded that a special remedy is not responsible for a different combination of symptoms such as menstrual disorders, age, exercise history, nutritional habits and nutritional knowledge for adolescence.Suzanne, et al; (2013). The purpose of this study was the body composition, menstruation, nutritional habits, eating disorders, collegiate volleyball players. Female volleyball players (N = 14) completed a 7-day diet food dietary recall method used, menstrual health questionnaires, and EAT-26 surveys. Body composition was determined by the 3 site skin gun test and Bod pod®. Half of the participants (50%) are considered “at-risk” (AR) for disordered eating as per the results of EAT-26. Consumption calories (1928 + 476) meet only 69.35% and energy expenditure (2780.66 + 148.88). For athletes (3.4 9 + 0.8 9 g / COH / kg / day) for 6-10 grams / day COO intake category and for athletes (1.17 + 0.35) for protein 1.2-1.7g / kg / day Recommended volume intake. Body fat percentage by using Bod Pod® (22.76 + 6.25%) In the conclusion, the current study shows that the diet of college female volleyball players is insufficient in calories, proteins, and carbohydrate; they are exposed to medical illnesses, including dysfunction risk.Dars, et al; (2014). In the teenage girls to evaluate the body mass index and nutritional status on the menstrual cycle. More than four hundred teenage girls were selected in 5 schools in Hyderabad. Data collected by trained medical undergraduate and postgraduate by meeting the girls’ school girls using a pre-tested questionnaire. BMI was calculated using the formula: BMI (kg / m2) = weight (kg) / height 2 (m2) hemoglobinometer using HB was assessed by Sahlis method. The data was analyzed using SPSS 11.0. A total of 305 girls were 76% normal menstrual, 28 girls had a continuous period of 7%, 52 girls had an infrequent period of 13% and 16 girls had 4% girls totally irregular. 305 girls, 76% of girls had normal menstrual flow, 68 girls had 17% heavy flow and 28-27% women had less flow. 152 girls 38% of girls complain of pre-monthly symptoms. Of the 231 girls, 60% were clinically anemic, 277 girls were 69% BMI between 18.5 – 24.9 kg / m2. Girls with one hundred and eight 27% of underweight children with 14 -18.49 kg / m2 BMI, sixteen 4% BMI were overweight with 25-29.99 kg / m2. A statistically significant relationship was found between BMI and social class (P <0.001) and BMI and menstrual cycle P <0.001). The study concluded that nutritional deficiencies in girls. 401 girls were examined, 231 girls were found to be anemic. Most girls (84%) had received general monthly, normal BMI and menarche before the age of 16 years. The overweight girls had very rare duration.Nascimento, et al; (2016). The purpose of the present study is to compare nutritional interventions between adolescence and adults. Before and after the semi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years, 11 teens, age range: 12-19 years) participated in nutritional consultation at an interval of 45 to 60 days took. The behavior of athlete's eating, body composition and nutrition knowledge was assessed. Increased knowledge of lean body mass and nutrition in both groups. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of nutritional interventions between, dietary and nutritional knowledge of adolescent and adult athletes. Nutritional counseling is changing at the athlete's eating behavior, nutritional knowledge, and body composition However, some healthy changes were experienced only by adolescents, especially food frequency and sweets intake. Homai, et al; (2014). the purpose of the study to compare the menarche age, dysmenorrhe and analgesic consumption, between athletic and non-athletic students in the universities of Tabriz at age of 18-28year and, 360 girls of students studied in medical and non-medical colleges at the University of Tabriz. The samples were selected selectively and completed the questionnaire, visual analog scale (VAS), sports and menstrual record. Data analysis was done by SPSS 16 statistical software descriptive and tracing statistical tests (Man-Whitney u and Chi-Square). P <0.05 was considered as important, there was significant difference in menstrual period (P = 0.001) and menstrual disorders (P = 0.026). In the athletic and non-athletic groups, there is significant statistical difference (P = 0.3 9) in the frequency of the dysmenorrhea, whereas analgesic consumption is much less in the athletic group (P = 0.001). This study showed that sports disorder can be improved, and the need for analgesics can be reduced to improve the dysmenorrhea among the people. It is vary necessary to pay more attention to nutrition which is one of the important reasons of delayed menarche and menstrual disorder. Ozbar, et al; (2016). The purpose of this study is to test the effect of the menstrual cycle on the performance of the team sports by the players. In the study, surveys were raised for the 18-fourth footballer, 40 handball players, 40 volleyball players and 40 basketball players, who were playing at a specific level, while 160 sports-related to their menstrual cycle. Frequency and variation analysis is used for the analysis of the data. Monthly menstrual periods started 13.02 years, 13.05 years, 13.04 years, and 13.66 years. Athletes usually have irregularity with menstrual up to 19.4%. 10% of athletes used the drug during the event, 8.8% of menstrual cycles were painful, 35.6% were painless, and 55.6% had occasional painful experiences. And in menstruation, 78.1% of athletes say that they are feeling themselves 10.1% of pre-menstrual phase. During menstruation, 19.9% ??of athletes said that their performance is similar, 2.5% said that it is better. It has been concluded that the menstrual cycle does not affect the performance of athletes participating in the study. Karout, (2015). Comparative study of knowledge and beliefs about menstruation between Saudi nursing students for menstruation. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Nursing College in Al Khabar town of East Province in Saudi, data collected using all 400 female students self-administered questionnaire of the age of 18-20 years. The collected data of the questionnaire filled using SPSS version 16 was analyzed. The result of this study is that girls in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia were unaware of information related to menstruation. An important relationship was found between marital statuses, academic year and marks of knowledge and belief but not with age. Although the majority of participants had received the source of information from their mother, who had good knowledge, the participants who were related to the above three academic years. In conclusion, to help adolescence girls manage menstrual traits and raise their awareness, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of at least compulsory reproductive health education; this can be achieved by linking the curriculum of reproductive health courses beginning at secondary school level.Sapkota, et al; (2013). The study was conducted the knowledge and practices related to menstruation among the adolescent teenagers of rural Nepal and sixty-one female adolescent of shree Himali Secondary School, Panchakanya, Sunsari, of which 61 students aged between 10 and 19 years And already menarche was included in the study. Descriptive figures such as frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage were used. The data was entered into Microsoft Excel and then transferred to the statistical package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. It was found that 36.1% gave correct information about menstrual cycle, where the most common informant mother (39.3%) was. During menstruation, discomfort was the most common problem (78.7%). Respondents (more than half the 54.1%) used sanitary pads and the frequency of changing pad twice the day was the highest (50.8%). 36.1% of men in the initial reaction had fear / apprehension, while 44.3% considered it as a relatively conceiving process. This highlighted the need for targeted interventions to increase awareness of all the girls and arrangements for family health education package. Monthly cleanliness is an issue that needs to be addressed at all levels. Adhikari, et al; (2007). The study comprises adolescent girls of age group 13-15 years in 3 schools of Shivanagar and Patihani village development committees of Chitwan district. There were 150 girls in this study, 27 of them were asked questions. We found that they did not maintain the menstrual hygiene properly, only 6% of the girls knew that menstruation was a physiological process, 36.7% knew it was due to hormones. 94% of them use the pad during the period, but only 11.3% disposes it. Overall knowledge and practice were 40.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Although knowledge was better than practice, both were not satisfactory. Therefore, girls should be educated about the process and importance of menstruation, using proper pad or absorbent and its proper disposal. This can be achieved by giving them proper training and health education (by teachers, family members, health teachers and media) so that girls of adolescence have no misconception regarding the hygiene of menstruation. Said & Mettwaly. (2017). The purpose of this study was to improve the lifestyle of nursing students about menstrual disorders through an educational training program. The study was organized in the Faculty of Nursing; the University of Beena is 18 to 25 years old. A total sample of 84 girls suffered from menstrual disorders. Earlier and later interventions were used that it was found that 89.20% of girls had wrong knowledge before the training program. After the training program, 9 8.20% of them had a good knowledge of the people. 86.9% of nursing students did not follow the healthy lifestyle before the training program. In the implementation of an educational training program, the lifestyle of the nursing student was improved significantly and significantly, compared to menstrual disorders, as well as the results of this study, the effective management of effective students in nutritional habits and healthy physical activity. For all students can be made between them.P, Chapman et al; (1997). The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional knowledge among high school forms of Varsity football teams, which are from the Baseline League of Southern California. Total 72 athletes of 18 teams were randomly divided into two groups, control groups and experimental groups. Only the experimental group has received nutrition education. Dietary habits of women athletes were studied through a pre- and post- 24-hour recall. Comparison of studies has shown no significant differences in the level of nutritional knowledge both groups have. Post-examination scores received after the nutritional education level is an important difference in the experimental group. Due to limited period of study there was no significant improvement in dietary and food options.