Diabetes profiles except HDL that we couldn’t find any

Diabetes
mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications.
The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 285 million people, 6.4%
of the world population, suffered from diabetes in 2010 and this prevalence
will increase to 439 million people, 7.7% of the world population by 2030(16).

The
prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase at an alarming rate around
the world, with even more people being affected by pre diabetes. While the
pathogenesis and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes are fairly well
known, its treatment has remained challenging, with only half of the patients
achieving the recommended hemoglobin A1c target(17).

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For
these reasons, the development of new drugs for the treatment of diabetes
mellitus has been focused and still it remains, extremely desirable.

Studies
of the effects of vanadium compounds on living systems have been abundant in
the last years, reflecting the interest that vanadium compound might have for
their environment impact and prospective applications in therapeutics(6,
8).

In present study, for the first time in literature,
we estimated the outcome of vanadyl sulfate on metabolic parameters and the
genes expression in type 2 diabetic model, simultaneously. The first series of findings showed that
compared to controls, in non-treated diabetic rats, weight, glucose, TG, TC,
insulin and insulin resistance were increased significantly (p-value
<0.05) that indicated induction of type 2 diabetes in rats. Further, the results of vanadyl effect on metabolic profiles and gene expression showed that vanadyl sulfate significantly reduced weight, insulin secretion, TNF-? genes expression, lipid profiles except HDL that we couldn't find any significant change, and increased PPAR-? gene expression in VS-treated diabetic rats compared to the non-treated diabetic group. Although the exact mechanism for reducing effects of VS on