Diabetes profiles except HDL that we couldn’t find any

Diabetesmellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications.The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 285 million people, 6.4%of the world population, suffered from diabetes in 2010 and this prevalencewill increase to 439 million people, 7.7% of the world population by 2030(16). Theprevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase at an alarming rate aroundthe world, with even more people being affected by pre diabetes.

While thepathogenesis and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes are fairly wellknown, its treatment has remained challenging, with only half of the patientsachieving the recommended hemoglobin A1c target(17).Forthese reasons, the development of new drugs for the treatment of diabetesmellitus has been focused and still it remains, extremely desirable.Studiesof the effects of vanadium compounds on living systems have been abundant inthe last years, reflecting the interest that vanadium compound might have fortheir environment impact and prospective applications in therapeutics(6,8). In present study, for the first time in literature,we estimated the outcome of vanadyl sulfate on metabolic parameters and thegenes expression in type 2 diabetic model, simultaneously.

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The first series of findings showed thatcompared to controls, in non-treated diabetic rats, weight, glucose, TG, TC,insulin and insulin resistance were increased significantly (p-value<0.05) that indicated induction of type 2 diabetes in rats. Further, theresults of vanadyl effect on metabolic profiles and gene expression showed thatvanadyl sulfate significantly reduced weight, insulin secretion, TNF-? genes expression, lipidprofiles except HDL that we couldn't find any significant change, and increased PPAR-? geneexpression in VS-treated diabetic rats compared to the non-treated diabeticgroup. Although the exact mechanism for reducing effects of VS on