Devianceis a behavior that continues to be viewed differently as society changes. Somebehaviors might be defined as being deviant by some groups and individuals,however, those same behaviors might not be viewed as deviant to others.
Humphrey (2006) Deviance is considered a vagrant form of human activity, movingoutside the more orderly currents of social life. As history continues tochange, perspectives and beliefs do as well. Before, expressing sexuality wasseen as a taboo. Today celebrities can show most of their cleavage in socialmedia and magazines and be praised for it. Social construction plays the majorrole in regards to the perspectives on deviance. The word deviant is sociallyconstructed differently depending on personal beliefs and standards. Someone assmall as a toddler might feel guilt in a behavior they engage that can be seenas the ‘wrong’ thing to do to those who surround him.
For instance, a littleboy might cross-dress and his family might be completely fine with it butothers might view it as a deviant behavior. If the little boy walks around inhis neighborhood wearing a pink dress and pink hair bow, he will begin to seethe negative responses he will receive by some people in his community.Sometimes a deviant behavior is easilyseen when it involves the well-being of people. If a person verbally insultsanother person that is seen as deviant by most, depending on the degree of theinsult, if a person murders another person that is definitely seen as deviantto the majority. Sometimes the history of someone’s behavior does not justifythem; they are simply seen as the ‘bad’ person.
Lizbeth A, Crawford, and Novak(2013) Deviance refers to behaviors that violate social norms and result innegative sanctions or reactions from others. Majority of the time minoritiesare labeled as deviant by higher authorities. Negative stigmas are sociallyconstructed by oppressors, those with privilege. Through these negative stigmasyou can see countervisuality and visuallity.
Countervisually is the right forthe oppressed to look. Mirzeoff (2011) It means requiring the recognition ofthe other in order to have a place in which to claim rights and determine whatis right. Mirzeoff (2011) The opposite of the right to look is not censorship,then, but “visuality,” that authority to tell us to move on, that exclusiveclaim to be able to look. Unfortunately, minorities continue to be labeled asdeviant and even thought the legal system is not on their favor, some do notjust cope but speak out to stop the negative stigmas and injustice system. Some deviant acts are seen by breakingsocial norms, such as, mores and laws. During Las Vegas shooting, the offender,Stephen Paddock broke the law and mores by shooting and killing so manyinnocent people. Breaking both norms also include the prohibition of murderinganother person. For instance, when Donald Trump was running for president, hesaid many racist comments which most white people did not view as wrong.
Lizbeth,etc. (2013) Primary deviance is the behavior in violation of social norms that isnot defined by others within society as deviance. Some theories that areapplied to deviance are, general strain theory, and social control theory.Deviance is not just seen in a person’s behavior but also how they expressthemselves. Negative stigmas create strains but those affected continue to tryto use tactics to prevent these strains. Teachers at Roosevelt High School aretrying to prevent students from low social economic backgrounds to engage indeviant behavior by having them share their stories. Lizbeth, etc (2013)According to Merton general strain theory, strain results in the failure toachieve economic or noneconomic goals, racial discrimination, the removal ofpositive stimuli, or the introduction of negative stimuli into someone’s life.
Althoughsome are trying to prevent strains, others try to cope with it. Social controltheory is incorporated to the UCLA racial profiling incident since the victimGains shows fear of his life because of his skin color. Gains is obeying thelaw but not because he believes they are right but because he is afraid of hislife. Deviant behaviors are socially constructed. When Harvard posted a taskfor students trying to get into the university, the students did not hesitateeven though it involved a deviant act. The students discriminated differentgroups and minorities through social media.
Deviance in this matter is seen asbeing social constructed by the students since they received positive feedbackwith the negative comments.LATimes: Students are more anxious in the Trump EraTrump can say so manythings about minorities but some people (white people) think there is nothingwrong with what he says. In the article teachers notice a difference instudents behaviors in response to Trump’s attitude. Minorities do see trump acting in a deviantway since he expresses himself by stereotyping everyone who is not white.
SinceTrump’s behavior is seen by some people as deviant but not by others, it iseasily to see primary deviance. The teachers noticed students standing up forTrump’s beliefs. Kohli (2017) Tensions between different racial groups wasn’tnew, many teachers acknowledged, but some said students recently had beenstanding up in class and using racial epithets in a way they’d never seenbefore.Trump uses negative stigmas against minoritiesand it might sound cruel and bad to those who are affected but there are somepeople who actually think what Trump says is true and not a generalization.People who are impacted the most are minorities since the threat anddiscrimination is aimed at them. Negative racial statements will continue toimpact minorities.
Visuality comes into place when minorities continue to getoppressed with negative stigmas. Although negative stigmas affect them, manycontinue to become educated, and fight for their rights which brings outcountervisuality. LA Times: Las Vegas ShootingStephenPaddock who was involved in the mass shooting at Mandalay Bay broke so manynorms and rules with his deviant behavior. Paddock broke mores since he killedand injured so many people including himself. He definitely broke the socialnorm of law since his behavior involved the criminal justice system. Pearce, M.
, Montero, D., & Winton, R. (2017) Paddock hadkilled himself by the time officers entered the room, they said.
He started breaking the law as soon as he broughtunregistered weapons in the hotel and continued until he committed suicide.Although Paddock broke so many norms, he is still not seen as domesticterrorist but rather seen as a ‘lone ranger’. Many white men who commit thesecrimes are always justified with mental illness or as a ‘long ranger’. Thepeople who were impacted the most were those who lost their lives during theconcert. This tragedy will continue to impact the victims’ families andfriends. Visuality cannot be implied to Paddock but to those minorities whocommit crimes and get categorized as monsters no matter what caused theirbehavior.
Countervisuality can be implied to those minorities who continue tofight for equity among race. Since Paddock was a white male committing a crime,he is shown some justification but when a minority commits such crimes they arenot questioned but simply a danger to society. LA Times: Roosevelt Middle School TeachersThe teachers and studentsat Roosevelt Middle School want discrimination and racism to stop and so theteachers use a technique call community building circle for students to sharetheir stories. The student emphasized themselves on sharing their stories inorder to directly have an impact on other students who feel superior. Theteachers are using restorative-justice practice so every student can be awarethat racial discrimination leads to strains which causes the victim to becomestress and anxious. Vega (2017) Roosevelt Middle School is the first campus inthe Glendale Unified School District to pilot restorative-justice practices,which are alternative methods, such as community-building circles, meant tohelp students manage and express their emotions and behaviors with others.
Thisexercise can impact so many students’ lives. In regards to visuality, theoppressors uses ‘words’ as his/her tool to belittle a person or group. Theteachers are using countervisuality by allowing their student to express theirthoughts and frustration to one another in order to trigger a movement in enddiscrimination.LA Times:UCLA Police Officer Racial ProfilingA UCLApolice officer racial profiled a UCLA African American facility employee,Claudius Gains.
Gains and his attorneyare trying to fight for justice but it is challenging since it involves thesystem versus a minority. Social control theory best explains Gains conformingdue to fear. In this article we can see why Gain is conforming rather than whyhe would deviate.
You can see that Gains is afraid something might occur whilehis arrest so he is obeying the officer. Since Gain experienced racialprofiling that lead him to become anxious and afraid. Winton (2014) Douglassaid that Gaines, a probationary employee with the facilities department atUCLA, had no criminal record and was wearing a UCLA uniform with an identitybadge on a chain around his neck when he was stopped.
In regards to racialprofiling, black men are impacted the most. The legal system has labeled blackmen and children as a deviant group. The legal system continues to murderinnocent black individuals and always tend to justify it. Visuality is seen inso many ways with Gains. Gains has been named, categorized, and defined as adanger to society due to his skin color.
Unfortunately, this stigma is stillseen when it comes to racial profiling. Gains was aware that he had rights andso countervisuality can be seen by Gains getting an attorney and speaking outabout the negative emotions the legal system brings upon the blackcommunity. NY Times:The Secret Social Media Life of TeenagersDeviance is not just seenwithin society but can also be seen in social media today.
The way peopleexpress themselves in social media continues to spark movements and beliefs. Manyteenagers according to this article continue to engage in deviant behaviors dueto discriminatory posts on social media. Negative post can socially contrast negative behaviors like bullying forinstance. Homayoun (2017) Over time, teens’ own values may become convolutedwithin an online world of instantaneous feedback, and their behavior online canbecome based on their “all about the likes” values rather than their real-lifevalues. The article talks about students sometimes getting positive feedbackand how the likes influence them to continue expressing themselves on socialmedia even if it is done in a cruel way like mocking disabled people andposting racist comments like some teenagers are seen in the article. The peoplewho are impacted the most are disabled people and minorities since they aremostly targeted. As social media continues to expand people continue to expressthemselves easier.
The teenagers deviant behaviors just continues to growthroughout the positive feedback they continue to receive. This would continueto impact the victims of cyber bullying. Visuality can be seen through thepsots teenagers post about disabled people and minorities. They are trying tocreate followers who have the same racist believes. Those who speak up aboutcyber bullying and racism can be seen using countervisuality.
They are notafraid to see the problem and begin movements to change negative thoughts thatcontinue to be socially constructed. For centuries people have dealt withsegregation, oppression, and discrimination. Change starts with the ability torise up and fight against injustice actions. Deviance is portrayed throughoutthe articles differently among certain groups.
Although deviance is usuallyviewed as a negative behavior sometimes people are stigmatized in that categorydue to their race and socioeconomic backgrounds. The articles show how somegreat people are still being labeled and how others who behave deviant arejustified. The legal system is bias when it comes to crimes. Society stillcontinues to show racism. Individuals still discriminate against people’sdifferences. Today, people from allaround the world are standing up and fighting for equity. When there is hopefor change, there is a possibility to someday look back and feel disgustedabout the system that categorized and separated human beings.