DEFINITION simulation started back in World War II when

DEFINITIONModelling-A process of creating a mock-upof something to be made.Simulation- The use of computer aidedsoftware for testing and understanding how a system under development willbehave in the real world.Modelling and simulationis a discipline for coming up with a level of comprehending the behavior ofpart of the system and/or system as a whole. Models areused extensively to aid in understanding the real system at a particular pointin time or space.HISTORYComputer simulation started back in WorldWar II when two mathematicians Jon Von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam had a problemof neutrons’ behaviour.

The Roulette wheel technique was suggested by the two andbecame successful fix to the problem; this became prominent and found variable v     applications in the business industry. After WorldWar II new technologies were implemented for military purposes during the war.In the late 1940s and early 1950s both analog and digital computers started wereused in organization.Computer simulation was not very popular inthe 1950s as many skilled personnel were needed leading to training costs.

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Inthe 1960s data and the program were both fed to the computer in a batch throughpunched cards. Data was taken on forms and keypunched while data processorsdeveloped the programs. IBM providedthe software and hardware that were able to model, simulate the problem andoutput solutions in six weeks. Duringthe late 1980s SIMANIV and CINEMAIV were developed; the latest in simulationand animation software by systems modelling.Simulation as a means became deceptivearound the middle 1990s.

Big corporations like Universal Data Systems encountereddifficulties when it came to translating the entire plant into a hybridflow-shop where only one unit would be sent to the next operation as soon as itwas accomplished at the current task. One plain arrangement for this modificationwas the effect on finished goods inventory. Experiments were performed  by using the simulation program coded  in GPSS/ PC (Minuteman) using an IBM PC/AT. Thecomplete package took a month to simulate and the results were progressive withthe eventual transformation of the entire plant to a flow-shop environment ascompared to the innovative batch environment.

IMPORTANCE OF MODELLING ANDSIMULATIONCURBING OF RISKS IN EXPERIMENTS-Most of theexperiments that are carried out in the engineering field can result in a greatdeal of damage. The use of simulation ensures that this instance of causingdamage to people is avoided. For example in pilot- training no real airplanesare used but a computer simulated environment is used for training.

This isimportant because it safe-guards the life of the learner and it always preventthe airplanes from being damaged. Another important example is the use ofsimulation in nuclear testing. Nuclear labs manufacture dangerous nuclearweapons that if they detonate can cause catastrophic damage to people and theenvironment. Simulation is used to test in order to ensure that the nuclearweapons do not go off unplanned.

IT SAVES TIME MONEY-Building a system fromscratch requires a lot of materials and manpower, this translates to usinglarge sums of money in order to finance it.Modelling and simulation ensures thata system to be created/made is just modelled without actually having to build the system. It also preventssituations where a system with wrong dimensions or ineffective is built. Agreat deal of time is also conserved as construction of a new system but thisis not the case with modelling and simulation as the results and working of asystem are instantly provided.IT ALLOWS TESTING OF EVERY POSSIBLEFAULT-During modelling and simulation the whole part of the system is put totest to figure out how it works and to establish if it has any glitches that needsto be corrected.

IT PRODUCES ACCURATE RESULTS-Modellingensures that accurate data is fed into the system which in turn is simulated toproduce accurate output. Simulation produces perfect results because there areno outside disturbances or perturbations.IDENTIFIES THE STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS OF ASYSTEM-The proposed system is put under test to investigate if it achieves thetask that it is being designed for.

This ensures that a system’s strength andits shortcomings are put to the test and if possible rectification is made tothe system.APPLICATIONS OF MODELLING ANDSIMULATIONSIMULATIONIN SCIENCE-Models and simulations are important inresearch. Models are used to represent the real systems through either physicalreproduction at smaller scale, or as mathematical models which enable dynamicsof the system to be presented in form of a simulation. This brings about thepossibility of exploring system behaviour in an articulated manner; it is usuallyeither impossible or too hazardous in the real world.WEATHERFORECASTING-Weather forecast is prepared by gatheringas much data as possible about the existing state of the atmosphere (particularlythe wind, temperature and humidity) and using the knowledge of atmosphericprocesses (through meteorology) to decide how the atmosphere progresses in thefuture. During the period of data assimilation process, information retrievedfrom the interpretations is used in combination with a numerical model’s most currentforecast for the time that observations were made to create the meteorologicalanalysis.Mathematical weather forecast models are computer simulations of theatmosphere.PILOT TRAINING-A flight simulator a device calleda flight simulator is used extensively for pilot prospect.

The simulator theatricallyre-creates aircraft  and the environment in which it is supposed tofly in for pilot exercise, design, or other purposes. It comprises of  duplicating the equations that rule howaircraft fly, how they  react toapplications of flight gearshifts, the effects of other airplane systems, andhow the airplane reacts to exterior factors such as air turbulence, airdensity, wind shear, precipitation, cloud.