Deepmind Technologies is a British Artificial Intelligence Company formally based inLondon, England.
It was co-founded by Dr. Demis Hassabis, Mustafa Suleyman, and Dr. ShaneLegg in 2010. In 2014, the company was acquired by Google and is now a part of their parentcompany Alphabet Inc. Deepmind now has an applied team in Mountain View, California andresearch centres in two Canadian cities: Edmonton and Montreal. CEO, Demis Hassabis, isformer chess prodigy and began his technology career making award winning video games. Hislater research into neural mechanisms was listed as one of the top scientific breakthroughs of2007 by Science. He is also a,” 5-times World Games Champion, a Fellow of the Royal Societyof Arts, and the recipient of the Royal Society’s Mullard Award and the Royal Academy ofEngineering’s Silver Medal” (Deepmind Technologies).
Head of Applied AI, Mustafa Suleyman,is accountable for the company’s commitment to solve large-scale world issues. At the youngage of 19, Mr. Suleyman, established a telephone counselling service which became one thelargest mental health services in England. Later, he started Reos Partners, an internationalconsultancy that aimed to solve complicated problems. Recently, he launched DeepMind Health,a technological partnership with the U.
K National Health Services helps these health institutionsrun more efficiently, and ultimately saves lives. Chief Scientist, Shane Legg, spent his highereducation in Switzerland becoming a master on models of intelligent machines and humandecision making. After receiving his PHD, he spent two years at the Gatsby ComputationalNeuroscience Unit at UCL studying how the brain relates to algorithms.Tasong 6PurposeArtificial Intelligence according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary is,” the capability of amachine to imitate intelligent human behavior”. However, the reality is the programs thatcontinue to be regularly updated prove that machinery can and will outperform humanscapability.
Within the last ten years, the artificial intelligence community has significantlyexpanded and project funding has skyrocketed. Therefore, the discoveries and developmentswithin this time are occurring rapidly and without precedent. Deepmind Technologies mainobjective is to develop artificial intelligence programs that can self-solve complicated issues.
Itbelieves that the use of AI can speed the development process and create efficient solutions. Thecompany’s website states,If we’re successful, we believe this will be one of the most important and widelybeneficial scientific advances ever made, increasing our capacity to understand themysteries of the universe and to tackle some of our most pressing real-world challenges.From climate change to the need for radically improved healthcare, too many problemssuffer from painfully slow progress, their complexity overwhelming our ability to findsolutions. With AI as a multiplier for human ingenuity, those solutions will come intoreach. (Deepmind Technologies)As a “multiplier for human ingenuity” the success of much of Deepmind’s research can beattributed to their nuanced examination of the human brain itself.
The application of the brain’svarious mechanisms of learning are utilized to further machine information processing. Theirpremier focus on game playing was the best possible activity to perfect AI complexity on. Itrepresents the capability to solve critical and complex dilemmas in the near future.Tasong 7StructureDeepmind Technologies is split into two general sectors: Research and DeepmindApplied. Research is organized through combining,” long-term thinking and interdisciplinarycollaboration of academia along with the relentless energy and focus of the very best technologystart-ups” ( Deepmind Technologies).
This sector tackles a large amount of scientific problems,many of which are prone to shift rapidly. However, their main focus is always centered onprogressing computer ability to mimic the human brain. According to Senior Research ScientistRaia Hadsell believes the sectors,” combination of research into games, neuroscience, deeplearning and reinforcement learning as a unique proposition that could lead to fundamentalbreakthroughs in AI” (Deepmind Technologies).Deepmind Applied is focused on the application of their successful research into the realworld. It focuses on collaboration with other businesses and experts to support the betterment ofhumanity.
This sector is split into three subsections: Deepmind Health, Deepmind for Google,and Deepmind Ethics & Society. Deepmind Health was formed in order to provide advancedtechnology that could support doctors, nurses, and patients. The research and mobile tools areforming a more efficient test and treatment system. The Deepmind for Google focuses on energyefficiency for Google Data centres and the further development of Google services.
The Ethics section researches the implications of various AI developments. The goal is to onlycreate technology that has a positive social impact. This sector has fellows who serve asindependent advisors that provide guidance and feedback.
Their current fellows are: ProfessorNick Bostrom (Oxford University), Professor Diane Coyle ( U of Manchester), Professor EdwardFelten (Princeton University), Professor Jeffrey Sachs (Columbia University), ChristianaTasong 8Figueres, and James Manyika. Their partners are: The AI Institute at NYU, Article 36, TheInstitute for Policy Research at University of Bath, The Institute for Public Policy Research,Leverhulme Centre for the Centre for Intelligence, Oxford Internet Institute’s Digital Ethics Lab,Partnership on AI, The Royal Society, and The Royal Society for Arts, Manufactures &Commerce.ResearchDeepmind’s research has had internationally renowned success, and most of it hasoccurred at public events for the world to see for themselves.
Go, is an ancient Chinese boardgame that has been played for an estimated 3,000 years (Knapton). It is an extremely complexgame that, according to Deepmind has,” … an astonishing 10 to the power of 170 possible boardconfigurations – more than the number of atoms in the known universe – making Go a googoltimes more complex than Chess” (Deepmind Technologies). This classic game has been astandard challenge for AI programs and for decades they could only play on an amateur level.The creation of the AlphaGo program by this company has forever changed this long studiedgame. This program was the first to ever win against a Go professional and then against LeeSedol, known to be the greatest player of the decade. The match took place in Seoul, SouthKorea in March of 2016 with over 200 million viewers.
This was a major breakthrough for thescience community and the world itself. Since then, Deepmind has continued to further developtheir Go programs and now has the AlphaGo Zero program which surpasses all the previousones. It’s high efficiency is because it learned from playing itself instead of data from othergames and players. This concept is referred to as tabula rasa, the program had no preconceivednotions and essentially became its own teacher. According to CEO and Co-Founder DemisTasong 9Hassabis,” the program was so powerful because it was no longer constrained by the limits ofhuman knowledge” (Knapton).The Deepmind Research sector has also had great success with Deep Q-networks, termedDQN, and continues to develop differential neural computers (DNC).
DQN is a deepreinforcement learning system that is able to master Atari 2600 games on an extraordinary level.Atari 2600 is a classic game console that was the precursor to popularized consoles likeNintendo and Playstation. The DQN when able to defeat all human players when tested with 49diverse games. It was able to perfect its strategies without any human intervention. This isconsidered progress towards potential General AI.
General artificial intelligence is the ability fora machine to perform any cognitive exercise a human can. The developing DNC system uses aneural network and memory to solve complex data. The network uses memory to produceanswers and optimisation enables it to self-improve. Essentially it is,” a learning machine that,without prior programming, can organise information into connected facts and use those facts tosolve problems” (Deepmind Technologies). Currently, the system is quite slow and but has asolid efficiency.
However, in the future it could prove groundbreaking for computer science,neuroscience, and cognitive science.Deepmind Health’s research is focused on a technique called deep learning. Theiralgorithms analyze visuals and attempts to interpret their meaning. Currently, it is beingdeveloped with: head and neck scans at University College London Hospitals NHS FoundationTrust, eye scans at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and mammograms with theCancer Research UK Imperial Centre.
It is learning to identify potential health risks within thescan photos, then eventually recommend treatments to health professionals. In collaboration withTasong 10the UK National Health Services, an app called Streams has been created to address failure torescue. This is a concept that address how efficiently healthcare providers can respond andprevent complications.
Currently, Streams is geared towards helping patients with acute kidneyinjury (AKI). Treatment for this condition costs the NHS an estimated one million euros. In theUK every year, approximately 40,000 AKI related deaths occur, 25% of which the NHS claimsare preventable. The app holds patient information such as test results, vital signs, and preexisting conditions. It can alert clinicians remotely in the case of urgent assistance as well. Rightnow, the app is only in use at the Royal Free London NHS foundation. Nurse there have reportedthe app was,” saving them up to two hours each day” (Deepmind Technologies). The app is stillin the development stages and Deepmind is working to add more features that benefit a largerrange of patients and clinicians.
Deepmind for Google has made the Google company more sustainable and environmentfriendly. Industrial sites, like Google data centre, are sources of large energy consumption.However, the one of the company’s key focuses is sustainability and Deepmind has made majorbreakthroughs in the race for green energy. They applied machine learning and,”trained theneural networks on the average future PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness), which is defined as theratio of the total building energy usage to the IT energy usage” (Deepmind Technologies). TheAI company has reduced Google data centres cooling bill by 40%.
This is through the use ofwater to cool their centres as opposed to air conditioning systems. The utilize sea water, naturalevaporative cooling, and recycle the water. Another large success for Deepmind was theirWaveNet network that was implemented by Google Assistant. It is a neural network thatproduces audio waveforms that produces realistic speech patterns in comparison to alternativeTasong 11networks.
Alternative network use live actor recordings, referred to as concatenative TTS, orcomputer generated voices that mimic grammar rules, known as parametric TTS. In contrast,WaveNet is a,” deep generative model that can create individual waveforms from scratch, onesample at a time, with 16,000 samples per second and seamless transitions between individualsounds” ( Deepmind Technologies). This system is referred to as a convolutional neural networkbecause it is based on actual brain processes.The Deepmind Ethics & Society sector bases their research on six themes: privacy,transparency, and fairness, economic impact, governance and accountability, managing AI risk,AI morality and values, AI and the world’s complex challenges. This is the newest unit of thecompany and it focuses on interdisciplinary research methods. These researchers must abide tofive core principles: social benefit, rigorous and evidence-based, transparent and open, diverseand interdisciplinary, collaborative and inclusive.
All of their research is based on the postulationthat all forms of artificial intelligence should be beneficial to all of society and remain underhuman control.PublicityDeepmind has had large media coverage due to their numerous research projects andgroundbreaking successes. The company is a firm advocate for open source information.
Thismeans a program’s source code is open to the public. They have released,”… open sourceenvironments, datasets, and codes to support and accelerate research in the wider AI community”(Deepmind Technologies). The company’s website has hundreds of published research papersthat are available for download. Many of which were accomplished in collaboration withacademia, a priority of the company.
In addition to these feats, they have also been the topic ofTasong 12controversy. The Deepmind Health sector collaborates closely with the National HealthServices. During the AI company’s Stream trials, the Royal Free NHS Foundation neglected tocomply with the Data Protection Act.
Therefore, the estimated 1.6 million people’s personalinformation given to the company lacked patient consent. This was confirmed by the InformationCommissioner’s Office conducted a year long investigation