Day different species that have contrasting attributes that cannot

Day to day humans at least use one item that have been animal tested like medicine, vaseline, makeup, candy, bandaids, napkins, and many more. Animal testing has been around for centuries to help mankind by experimentation on animals to prove theories and help the advancement in medicine and the sciences. Many advancements that were successful due to animal research like minor treatments, products, and technology helped lay the foundation for bigger treatments that other animals can not help. Even though humans are fall under the animal category, homospaines are different species that have contrasting attributes that cannot be replicated and thus making animal experimentation unbeneficial that cause negative outcome and unnecessary wastefulness.         Humans have been proven to have more genetic and biological differences than similarities with any other animals which makes testing on animals no sufficient. One argument that is commonly brought up is that animals having similar physiology and they are the perfect alternative for humans. Other than other monkeys, gorillas, and other primates has there been any other animals that looks and function like humans? The answer is no, before colonization and around 2.6 million years ago, humans derived from monkeys but we are more different then the same; “Each human cell contains roughly three billion base pairs, or bits of information … two identical stretches of DNA can work differently–they can be “turned on” in different amounts, in different places or at different times”(American Museum of Natural History). Because of the process of evolution we have become the species we are today which is homospaianes which are totally different from our ancestors and other animals, thus concluding that different species that react differently to chemicals. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that was tested on monkeys in 1982 called Oraflex had made people having severe liver problems that caused more than 3,500 patients that have been injured and multiple deaths (Pippin, Sullivan). No matter if it is the same gender human, dog, cat, rabbit they all have different genetic makeup and effects of treatment will be different.            Many disease that are tested on animals like cancer, sclerosis, trauma to the body, and Alzheimer have been unsuccessful because of the difference in anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology. Alzheimer’s is a disease a type of dementia, a neurodegenerative disease and is when brain cells are dying. Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia meaning it will effect your day to day life because of memory loss and how it is more difficult to accept information. Because it is one of the most common disease worldwide today, the rush for a better treatment is needed, this is another example where animal testing comes to play. Since the etiology of idiopathic Alzheimer is unknown scientist mutate animals close to having  Alzheimer. Mice are typically used in this experiment due to them having similar physiological attributes in humans, but results have came out negative on finding the direct cause on Alzheimer to be able to find a cure. In a article it was found that even though mice had somewhat of similarities they had contrasting DNA,”researchers uncovered many DNA variations and gene expression patterns that are not shared between the species…. For example, the regulatory elements and activity of many genes of the immune system, metabolic processes, and stress response vary between mice and humans”(National Institutes of Health). The problem is that mice are used because they are cheap and are not used because they have the most common similarities with humans, “most of the animals in laboratories are rats and mice and they are chosen not because they resemble us most closely, because obviously they don’t but because they are cheap and quick and easy to use and they reproduce that makes them a cost effective approach for scientist”(Langley).           Humans are complex species that have complex body system, because animals are unable to replicate gene mutation cancer research using animals have been fruitless. Cancer has been a huge epidemic these couple past years, in 2012 around 8.2 million are affected by the disease and the numbers keep growing. Cancer is when body’s cells start to divide and spread into the tissues. Animal are injected with tumors and are used to study the properties in cancer so they can create treatments. However there has been many limitations in animals to actually have the same cancer as in humans, because animals have “been unable to reproduce the complexities of human TBI. In 2010, Maas et al. reported on 27 large Phase 3 clinical trials and 6 unpublished trials in TBI that all failed to show human benefit after showing benefit in animals”(Akhtar), this show that it is harder to find a treatment and why there is such a high failure rate of cancer drugs. There have been countless drugs that have failed in clinical trials, and hundreds of treatments have been denied because they do not work on humans and only on animals. There have been more than 90 percent of failed animal experiments and that is due to the fact the even though animal testing have tried to improve the fact is that there is no possible way to recreate exact republic of human problems in animals, “animal physiology and human physiology is so different that you cannot simply generalize finding theses animals and apply then to humans”(Knight).              Major factors dealing with countless of wasteful animals testing is that and humans have different toxicity levels, growth of various cells, different numbers of chromosomes, DNA and RNA. We often say that animal testing necessary because they are the closest to humans and help humans to have a deeper understanding of the human body and mind to make pharmaceutical drugs, but there has been many treatments or drugs that were said to be safe based on animal experiments and caused serious side effects on humans. Dr. Joel Langley a scientific director of the Dr. Hadwen Trust for Humane research had stated that one big contributor to the failure of drugs tested on animals is that due to the fact that animal toxicity levels are distinctly different it causes the animals to have extremely unlikely reactions then humans (Langley). Many pharmaceutical drugs like Thalidomide was a drug in the 1950’s which dealt with nausea in pregnant women had a catastrophically negative effect then when it was tested on animals. Over 10,000 births with limb-reduction defects and after then that thalidomide was taken down. It was soon found out that animals were only effected on high dosage (Pippin, Sullivan). Another drug that was taken down was Baycol that was popular in 1997 for abnormal cholesterol, but it was taken off the market after many had severe muscle wasting and that more than 100 deaths. It was not seen in animal tests, including multiple animals, but only seen when animals were given high doses and only then was something that was seen. Researchers have concluded that animals could tolerate it and that rats are 200 times more resistant (Pippin, Sullivan). Because of so its hard to predict the outcome of a drugs or treatment, as Dr. Andrew Knight said ” Its possible to find examples on either side of the arguments possible to cherry pick theses cases, we need a more systematic way to try to evaluate how useful animal experiments are”(Knight). Animals are induced to have the disease artificially which sheds no light on the actual disease because if an animal is surgically made to have a disease then they cannot have the disease naturally.             Annually the state uses billions of tax dollars to fund old or useless animal experimentation and taxpayers have no idea where there money went, “almost $22 billion resulted in well over $10 billion in funding for projects that included animal experimentation.”(National Anti-Vivisection Society). Animal experimentation is a waste of money due to labs doing old experiments, unnecessary products, and unethical testing. Many research facilities tend to do experiments from 20 years to over 100 years old, they then tell people that they have a high success rate that is false.  Langley has stated in a interview that anginces are wasting money on doing the same experiment that was already done or proven already, “Regulatory agencies … who insist that some animal testing is done so there has been considerable inertia in the regulatory agencies who seem to be happy to plow with the same animal test that were being conducted 6080 and in same cases nearly a hundred years ago so some of these animal test are incredible outdated”(Langley). Every years thousands upon thousands of animal tested cosmetics are pushed out into the market and on shelves to buy, but is it necessary to have another fondation or lotion that works like another? Having another moisturizer that works just as well as the millions out there and the only difference is the new packaging, is it really needed. Millions to billions of dollars wasted when that same money could be used for education, poverty, health insurance and many more.      Advancement made to stop animal testing, to find low cost ways, unnecessary waste and the negative outcomes have been made. By non animal testing its saves money that could be put somewhere else, does not have to waste time, and also by not giving a big percentage of awful results. Many other alternatives like computer simulations, cell culture and test tubes which had many breakthrough like miniaturizing the use of human cancer cells in a test tube, “In vitro or test-tube study has revolutionised medical research. Cell and tissue preservation technology is now so advanced that many different types of cells can be kept alive almost indefinitely, giving far more accurate results when studying disease on the microscopic level at which it occurs”(Fox). By using alternative you are using human DNA which would give a precise and a more accurate results, it’s also ruling out any other factors of differences between animals and humans. “Because if you’re studying the right species you’re more likely to get the right answers”(Langley), Langley discuss that since your using human DNA it would not waste money and using the right model to shed light to the disease more clearly.      Back when the ancient greeks lived, animals were used to study external to have a understanding of the basic body parts, but times have changed where humans have become more advanced who study diseases, drugs, and help the future of mankind. It’s time to step away and embras the new technology around us then sticking with the old ways. Using the new steps we took in research will stop the trial and error in drug testing, help to have a better understanding on diseases due to the fact there is not a second variable to it, and help the society grow and move one step further, because you can only duplicate or genetically induced diseases in a animal so much. Are you with the move to a better research and studies or are you pro animal testing?