Coursetitle: ProjectManagement I Titleof the assignment: The Qualities of a Good Project Manager Submitted by: Robert Erik Kittler Matriculation Number(s): 1610570087 Cohort: B Lecturer: Prof. (FH)Mag. JuliusDem MBA Institution: Lauder Business School Hofzeile 18-20 1190 Wien Austria Vienna, 17.
11.2017 Abstract The purpose of the following research is to identifythe qualities of a good project manager. The study´s importance is justified bythe influence project managers have on the development of projects which costresources and time.
The study relies heavily on secondary research which wasused to gather the basis for the findings. The findings concluded that a goodproject manager should have sound communicative and listening skills. Inaddition to the first two traits, the manager needs to be an efficient negotiatorin order to maintain harmony and resolve arguments. Another important resultpointed out that the organizational skills are obligatory for any good projectmanager.
Furthermore, the desired manager should have strong leadership skillsalong with the capability to delegate tasks appropriately. Table of Contents Abstract 1Table of Contents. 21 Introduction. 32 Project manager as a communicator and negotiator.
43 Project manager as a leader. 64 Project manager as the organizational authority. 85 Project manager as the person who delegates.
106 Conclusion. 127 References. 13 1 Introduction Inorder to execute a project almost flawlessly, the project manager has to be aperson capable of coordinating a plethora of tasks. The project manager has tocope with the issue of cooperation; multiple professionals who are involved inprojects often have technical skills, but lack the cohesiveness while workingin a group which is vital for a successful outcome. Another issue arising fromhaving to manage personnel is to keep the interpersonal arguments fromhampering or endangering the project itself. A significant amount ofresponsibility is vested into the project manager regarding the planning andcontrolling matters as well.
The project manager oversees such tasks as qualitymanagement, establishment of a schedule, and cost control (Portny, 2010,pp.39-41). Therefore, the project manager has a vast amount of work to coverand this type of work is not suitable for everybody.
The seminar paper´spurpose is to discover what traits a good project manager should possess inorder to cope with all the obstacles. 2 Project manager as a communicatorand negotiator Keepingthe professional group members working on the project informed is one of thecrucial aspects which needs to be addressed. The manager is responsible forkeeping up an effective chain of communication between the group members toavoid setbacks and bothersome problems which could have been prevented by theapplication of adequate communication (Portny, 2010, p.197). The manager hasseveral tools which can be used to maintain appropriate communication with the groupmembers such as one-on-one talks or the group meetings. The one-on-one talkinvolves the project manager and an individual group member. Having a personalconversation with the member bolsters the trust in the manager and theindividual is also more likely to disclose their concerns regarding the project(Portny, 2010, p.
64). On the other hand, group meetings assert more of acollective spirit over the whole group which can be useful to discuss thecurrent progress, brainstorm, and distribute information (Portny, 2010, p.64). Also,the project manager needs to be aware of the one-way and two-way communicationand be able to distinguish when it is proper to use one or the other (Portny,2010, p.265). Theone-way communication concerns a message which travels from the sender to thereceiver; however, the receiver is not presented with the opportunity to replyback to the sender (Portny, 2010, p.265).
The one-way communication should beused when there is little room for misinterpretation of the message (Portny,2010, p.265). Confirmation messages or messages stating facts would be properexamples of messages used in the one-waycommunication (Portny, 2010, p.266). There are two types of one-waycommunication: push and pull. The push method disseminates the informationproactively to the end user.
The pull method is available for the people whoseek information from a source (Portny, 2010, p.265). Thetwo-way communication engages both the sender and the receiver. In this case,the sender sends the message and the receiver is able to reply to the messageand potentially request clarification or add objections (Portny, 2010, p.265).This method is widely used during group meetings or conferences where multiplepeople are involved. The messages used by the two-way communication are usuallyof a complex character which need input from both the receiver and the sender(Portny, 2010, p.
265). Outstandinglistening skills are imperative for the manager to keep the amount of conflictand misinterpretation to its minimum. By actively listening to the recipient´sreaction to a message, the manager can determine whether the person understoodthe essence of the message correctly (Portny, 2010, pp.264-267). Anotherbenefit of well-developed activelistening skills is the fact that the manager increases the chances ofagreement among the members (Portny, 2010, pp.266-267). The manager can takeadvantage of the following three types of active listening techniques:visualizing, paraphrasing, and by checking inferences (Portny, 2010,pp.
266-267). Visualizingis a method which makes the listener form a mental picture of the message. Whenthe picture is assembled, the receiver can point out the imperfections anddiscuss possible improvements (Portny, 2010, pp.266-267). Paraphrasingmakes the receiver repeat the sender´s message in his own words to demonstratethe receiver has a clear understanding of the conveyed information. Afterhearing the receiver´s version, the sender provides a clarification to the receiver ifthere are any misinterpretations (Verzuh, 2016, pp.313-314).
Checkinginferences involves the receiver asking questions about the assumptions thesender coded into his message. Therefore, the receiver eliminates any potentialmisconceptions about the senders assumptions (Portny, 2010, pp.266-267). Theissues arising among the group members which are not of a technical characteract as a disruptive force to the well being of the project itself (Verzuh, 2016,pp.327-328). The personal quarrels between the group members who areprofessionals should occur rarely; however, if such problems are present, theproject manager has to ensure the issue is dealt with swiftly and effectively (Verzuh,2016, pp.327-328).
The manager has to bea competent negotiator to solve the issue between the group members acting as amediator (Verzuh, 2016, pp.327-328). The negative aspect of a conflict shouldbe overcome and turned into a positive factor for the growth of the project (Verzuh,2016, pp.327-328). The conflict should be acknowledged along with the emotionssurrounding the individual´s judgment.
Framing the conflict in reference to theproject helps the project manager in finding the solution. The manager shouldmake the individuals disclose their interests in order to make it easier tofind common ground for the solution (Verzuh, 2016, pp.327-328). 3 Project manager as a leader Theproject manager acts not only as the main coordinator of the project, but alsoas the person who makes sure the project delivers the desired results. Securingswift and satisfactory progress is an integral part of the manager´s job (Williams,2008, p.
131). In this case, the manager needs to make use of the leadershipskills. The leadership style should be tailored to fit every individual in thegroup to provide a safe pathway for growth of the project (Williams, 2008,p.131). Therefore, the leadership style should differ over a variety ofprojects involving different people to achieve the best results (Williams,2008, pp.131-132). The leader should highlight the project´s vision and inspirethe team members to work towards making the vision into a reality (Portny,2010, pp.
281-282). Themanager has a set of executive powers as a leader which have to be alwaysbalanced to keep the team productive (Dinsmore & Cabanis-Brewin, 2010,pp.165-167). The bases of influence are the following: authority, reward power,punishment, expert power, and the referent power (Dinsmore &Cabanis-Brewin, 2010, pp.165-167). Theauthority base of influence concerns a variety of aspects. The organizationallyderived elements would be the title, the budget, the size of the project.
Theindividuals group members view the authority with respect, credibility, andtrust (Dinsmore & Cabanis-Brewin, 2010, pp.165-167). Thereward power deals with the reimbursements of the team members. The ordinaryrewards such as salaries and wages fall into this category. The creation of aprofessional environment where the team members get recognized for theiraccomplishments is a part of the reward power spectrum as well (Dinsmore &Cabanis-Brewin, 2010, pp.165-167).
Thepunishment influence revolves around the penalization. Demotion or thepossibility of resource limitation are both organizationally derived aspects ofpunishment (Dinsmore & Cabanis-Brewin, 2010, pp.165-167).
The impact ofpunishment aspects on the group includework pressure, reprimands, and isolation. Therefore, the manager shouldexercise this power with caution (Dinsmore & Cabanis-Brewin, 2010,pp.165-167). Theexpert power means that the leader is supported by the top management. The teammembers perceive the leader as a competent, well-informed, and knowledgeableperson (Dinsmore & Cabanis-Brewin, 2010, pp.165-167). Thereferent power deals with the personal traits of the leader such as charisma,friendship, or empathy (Dinsmore & Cabanis-Brewin, 2010, pp.
165-167). Theleader must create a friendly working atmosphere due to the fact that the groupmembers need to feel secure about the integrity of their colleagues. It is inthe manager´s best interest to promote trust among the individuals (Dinsmore& Cabanis-Brewin, 2010, pp.168-169). If the professionals working in a team do nottrust each other, then the whole project´s future might be endangered becausethe vital information may not be disclosed. The decision making process might be thwarted if the group members donot have the required information at their disposal (Dinsmore &Cabanis-Brewin, 2010, pp.
168-169). .4 Project manager as theorganizational authority Themost important trait a good manager should have is to be excellent at planning.The planning of a project answers represents the most crucial point of thewhole endeavor (Kemp, 2006, p.23).
The planning process seeks to answer themost trivial problems such as who is going to deliver materials for the projector how much the whole project will cost (Kemp, 2006, p.23). The manager has tobe aware of the fact that the planning process is closely connected to strategy,plan implementation, and logistics (Lewis, 2007, pp.35-37). Thestrategy specifies the approach which should be implemented to reach thespecified goal of the project (Lewis, 2007, pp.35-37). The project managershould focus on the most practical approach in order to achieve the bestresults (Lewis, 2007, pp.35-37).
Choosing the fitting strategy reduces costsand boosts productivity which is what the manager should strive for. Themanager should keep in mind that copying historical methods of former projectscan be an acceptable idea, but in some cases it is inefficient to implement(Lewis, 2007, pp.35-37). Theplan implementation refers to the way of how the strategy is carried out. Themanager needs to make sure the proper tools are used to ensure that there is noloss of quality (Lewis, 2007, pp.35-37).
This is the part of the planningprocess where the manager decides who will be doing what, where, and when(Lewis, 2007, pp.35-37). Thenext manager´s burden is the logistics which are concerned with the actualdelivery of the materials needed for theproject. The manager should maintain a project scheduling program in order toknow when to schedule the next delivery (Lewis, 2007, p.
38). Peripheral aspectof logistics plays a critical role as well. This type of logistics is concernedwith the well-being of the group of people working on the project; food andhousing have to be provided to construction workers if they are involved in theproject for example (Lewis, 2007, pp.35-37). Anothercrucial part of being organized manager is to control the plan once it is inthe phase of execution by the group members (Portny, 2010, pp. 232-234).
Themanager is required to collect the necessary information, evaluate the work inrelation to the plan, and summarize the discovered findings When the controlling information has beenprocessed, the results should be presented to the project´s audience (Portny,2010, pp. 232-234). Theproject manager´s quality of the data should contain precise and up-to-dateinformation to analyze the problems almost instantly. Once the problem has beenidentified, the process to solve the problem can start utilizing the propermeasures (Portny, 2010, pp. 232-234). Anotherpart of controlling is the tracking of deadlines, financial resources, and howeffectively the personnel manages their resources (Portny, 2010, pp. 232-234).The team meetings along with the team reports provide the manager with thegathered information, specific numbers, and dates.
The project manager shouldalways make sure whether the personnel is available for the meeting (Portny,2010, pp. 232-234). All of the resources involved in theproject have to be monitored and used to its maximum potential (Barkley, 2008,p. 312). The project manager should have a central resource pool at hisdisposal in order to react quickly to potential gaps or inefficiencies in theresource management (Barkley, 2008, p. 312). 5 Project manager as the person whodelegates Insuringeach member is working efficiently should be one of the main focuses of everymanager. The project manager needs to be aware of the roles which can bedelegated to the team members and the ones which cannot (Portny, 2010, p.
201).The team members are held accountable for their delegated work and are expectedto deliver proper results; therefore, it is manager´s task to assign rolescarefully to eliminate potential mismatches between the member´s capabilitiesand the designated role (Portny, 2010, p. 201). Theauthority aspect of the project can be delegated, but responsibility over thetasks can only be shared amongst the project members. The full delegation of decision-makingpower is possible (Portny, 2010, p.
202). This way the manager does not need to seek themanager´s consultation or involvement. However, the project manager is stillobligated to oversee the person´s work so the desired results are trulydelivered (Portny, 2010, pp. 201-202). It isrecommended to delegate authority for the following four reasons: to free themanager from doing other tasks, to have the most competent person make thedecision, to get another qualified person´s views on a problem, to promoteanother person´s ability to handle additional duties thoughtfully (Portny,2010, pp.
201-203). Thetasks which the manager feels the most confident about should be carried out bythe organizer himself (Portny, 2010, p. 203). Also, the assignments which arenot on the project´s critical path should be completed by the manager as well.Any postponements of the tasks on the critical path present a significantsetback for the whole project (Portny, 2010, pp.
201-203). This way if themanager has a delay on a task, the project as a whole does not have to face thedanger of being delayed. The project manager should be able to explain everytasks which is being delegated. An experienced project manager would not assigna role to a team member which is vaguely defined (Portny, 2010, pp. 202-203).
Thisis due to the reason that the time consumed required by the team member forclarification cancels out the benefit of having the task delegated (Portny,2010, pp. 201-204). Afterhaving all the tasks delegated, the project manager needs to supervise the teammembers in order to achieve the optimal results because of the inherent risk createdby the act of delegation (Portny, 2010, p.
205). One of the acts of supervision is that the manager has to be available to answerquestions of the team members regarding their delegated task. Another importantpoint would be the performance of the members which should be checked forquality by the supervisor (Portny, 2010, p. 205). Thedegrees of delegation vary and the roles do not have to be assigned to theindividuals on a wholesale level, but can be also done in a partial manner(Portny, 2010, pp. 204-205). For example, the manager has the authority toappoint the individual to do an analysis on a certain situation, then have themdevelop the course of action which should be taken, and then let the leaderknow the results of their work (Portny, 2010, pp.
204-205). Another example of partial delegation would be to come up witha specific plan to resolve a situation, but the individual would execute hisplan only once the project manager gave the direct approval to do so (Portny,2010, p. 203).
6 Conclusion Everyproject´s success depends heavily on the competency of the people involved. Theproject manager as the person in charge has to be a person of soundcommunicative and listening skills due to the fact that misinterpretations ofmessages result in mistakes which slow down the progress. In case of quarrels,the manager should be able to step in as a mediator resolving the issue andrestores order.
Another important skill of a good project manager is concernedwith the leadership. The manager should have the ability adjust the leadershipstyle for a project to fit the different personalities of team members. As theproject´s leader, there is a variety of powers which can be utilized and it isthe manager´s task to use them appropriately to ensure the team´s productivity.Organizational skills are also mandatory in order to execute the projectmanager´s job to its fullest potential. Such tasks as the plan implementation,strategy, or the logistics are the mainresponsibilities which the manager as an organizational authority needs to keepin mind. Scheduling group meetings and making sure the personnel can attendthem is yet another vital point which the manager needs to address as theorganizational authority. In addition to the aforementioned skills, the projectmanager is the person delegating roles and tasks; therefore, it is paramount the manager knows how to distinguishbetween tasks which are more suitable to be delegated to the team members andthose which should be executed by the manager. Clarification of the delegatedroles and assignments should be provided at demand to the team members toensure smooth progress of the project.
All of these named qualities are a partof the findings of this research. This seminar paper utilized secondaryresearch to find the results regardingthe qualities of a good manager. The limitations of the results are inherentlypresent due to the reason that there is a vast spectrum of qualities which asolid project manager should possess besides the skills the paper covered. Theresults are only a fraction of all the possible traits. However, the aim ofthis research was focused on finding themost pivotal characteristics a goodproject manager should have. Further advanced research analyzing project managers should be conducted due to the factthat the society may benefit as a whole from the findings´ applications which can speed up the process of projects while potentially savingvaluable resources. Trying to find themost common inefficiencies in the behavior of project managers can serve as asuggestion for further research whose findings can be used to develop moresuitable answers to the topic.
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