Contents for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments.

A1. 2
References. 7
A2. 8
References. 11
A3. 12
References. 14
A4. 15
References. 18




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A group can be defined as two or more
interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve
particular objectives. A group behavior can be stated as a course of action a
group takes as a family. Group has been defined as “an
avenue through which group members experience mutual benefit” and groups can be
formal or informal. Teams can be specified as a specific form of group that aim
to solve long-term problems and teams have a greater level of commitment to
achieve common goals compared to groups. Therefore, it is important for
managers to be transforming workforce groups into teams. (Dudovskiy,


Characteristic of group behavior consist of group dynamics, stages,
group facilitations & consideration. They are able to develop the initial
design parameters for the new products to meet increasing demand around the

Since it’s a group, members are chosen for their expertise in
various areas so that they can achieve a targets and mostly the company would
be much valuable in market that other competitors. Each members has their own
role in product designing since each member has new ideas to come up with new

Any decisions are made after a discussions of all the committee
members after deciding a by a majority vote.



     Organizational Functions

     Individual Functions

v  Accomplish complex, interdependent
tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individual.

v  Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation.

v  Generate new or creative ideas and

v  Develop, enhance, and confirm the
individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity.

v  Coordinate interdepartmental

v  Give individuals an opportunity to
test and share their perceptions of social reality.

v  Provide a problem-solving
mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments.

v  Reduce the individual’s anxieties
and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness.

v  Implement complex decisions.

v  Provide a problem-solving mechanism
for personal and interpersonal problems.

v  Socialize and train newcomers.


















v  Forming

When the group is just formed and members are
formally placed together in a work group. At this stage, group members try to
comprehend where they stand in the group and how they are being perceived by
others in the group. The members are very cautious in their interactions with
each other and the relationships among the group members are very superficial.
Any decisions made in the group are made by the more vocal members. Members
seldom express their feelings in the group and the individual members who are trying
to understand who are in the group have concerns about how they will fit in the
group as a permanent group member.

v  Storming

Sometime after the formal group is created,
internal sub groups get developed. Due to the newness of the group, there are limited
interactions initially among the members of the group. However, small groups of
two or three members interact with each other and make an effort to get to know
each other better. Thus, subgroups are formed. Once this sub grouping process
takes place and members begin to feel somewhat more comfortable in the group,
they try to establish their positions and test their powers in the bigger
group. At this stage, disagreements tend to get expressed among the group
members and feelings of anxiety and resentment are also expressed. Some power
struggle may ensure at this stage to determine who should assume the role of
informal leader. This storming stage is also known as the sub-grouping and
confrontation stage.


v  Norming

Norming is the
next stage where the disagreements, differences and power issues which were
dominant at the storming stage gets worked out. The group sets norms, tries to
attain some degree of cohesiveness, understands the goals of the group, starts
making good decisions, expresses feelings openly and makes attempts to resolve
problems and attain group effectiveness. At this stage, which is also known as
individual differentiation stage or initial integration stage, the individuals’
roles get defined and the task and maintenance roles are assumed by group
members. Group members also begin to express satisfaction and confidence about
being members of the group.


v  Performing

The group has
matured fully. The members are committed to the group goals, have complete
trust in each other and allow honest disagreements to be freely expressed but
make sure that the conflicts are satisfactorily resolved as and when they
occur. And the group evaluates members’ performance so that the group members
develop and grow. Feelings are expressed at this stage without fear, leadership
roles are shared among the members and the members’ activities are highly
coordinated. The task and maintenance roles are played very effectively. The
task performance levels are high and member satisfaction, pride and commitment
to the group are also high. And the both performance and member satisfaction
are sustained indefinitely. This stage is also referred to as collaboration
stage or final integration stage. Since reaching this stage requires a long
period of time and member homogeneity in values and goals, very few work groups
reach this stage.

v  Adjourning

For permanent
work groups, performing is the last stage in their development. However, for
temporary committees, teams, task forces and similar groups that have a certain
specific and limited task to perform, there is an adjourning stage. In this
stage the group prepares for its disbandment. And high task performance is no
longer the group’s top priority; rather attention is directed towards wrapping
up group activities. Responses of group members vary at this stage. Some are
very happy because of the group’s accomplishments whereas some may be depressed
over the loss of friendships gained during the work group’s life.

(Sinha, n.d.)




Dudovskiy, J. (2013, December 1). Group
Characteristics and Group Behaviour. Retrieved from Research Methodology:

Group Characteristics and Group Behaviour

Sinha, K. (n.d.). explain stages of group
development with a diagram. Retrieved from Top 5 Stages of Group
Development (With Diagram):












Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. Measurable and relatively permanent change in behavior through
experience, instruction, or study. Whereas individual learning is selective,
group learning is essentially political its outcomes depend largely on power
playing in the group. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and
some machines. Evidence that
learning has occurred may be seen in changes in behavior from simple to
complex, from moving a finger to skill in synthesizing information or change in
attitude. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event but much skill
and knowledge accumulates from repeated experiences. Learning itself cannot be
measured, but its results can be. (what are learning, 2017)


Diver’s nature in a group benefits the company because each members
has their own unique new ideas to come up when they are to develop new product.
In this case the group president had wanted to bring a new design to market
still because of the diver’s nature the decision cannot be made since it’s a
committee everyone has to decide on the matter, they decided to keep the
existing design for the product and sell it in the market since they didn’t had
time for the new product and the existing design was perfect for the product.


The Learning Process





v  Input (often called cues)

v  Learner perceives or develops and idea of what has to be done.



v  Processing in the brain

v  How do we put the info into a response?


v  Output

v  Move or movement


v  External or internal

v  Coach important

v  Asked to practice further, recycle starts again.


Behaviorist theories

Humans learn through trial and error. Learning develops over time.
Positive and negative feedback. Consequences. Learning validated based on
observed change.

Example: Modeling (Bandura), Stimulus-response (Pavlov), Operant
conditioning (Skinner)

Cognitive theories

Learning is based on an internal change of perception and related
to information processing. Personal characteristics have an impact on how a cue
is perceived. Predictable stages of development of meaning, logic, reasoning.

Example: Field theory (Lewin), Cognitive discovery (Piaget),
Hierarchal structure (Bloom)



Learning is self-motivated, self-directed, self-evaluated. Learner
is an active participant, learning must be relevant to learner. Learning
focuses on self-development.

Example: Self-directed learning (Rogers), Andragogy/Adult learning
(Knowles), values clarification (Dewey)


what are learning. (2017, december 15). Retrieved from Wikipedia:









Attitudes are
evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. There
are three components of an attitude. There are:

v  Cognitive component: of an attitude is the opinion or
belief segment of an attitude.

v  Affective component: is the emotion or feeling segment of
an attitude.

v  Behavioral component: of an attitude is an intention to behave in a certain way toward
some or something.



in my opinion, If I was in Jose position I would recommend the
committee members to bring new ideas in the product since it’s an old design,
if it was a moderate design people will consider using the new product.

I would insist to bring a new design  for the product in order to market it in the
market rally so that we can provide moderate products .if it does not work I
would recommend to change the committee members in order to bring new changes
for the company.


A leader is somebody who in advance does not use his power to force
his goals to be achieved. He has vision and the skill of convincing by which he
is able to get his message understood at all levels of an organization. He is
social, and he can inspire people by shaping our nations and community

Good leader has these type of leadership characteristics Honesty,
ability to delegate, communication, sense of humor, confidence, commitment,
positive attitude, creativity, ability to inspire and intuition, without these
good behaviors we cannot become a good leader,

I would suggest Jose to strengthen his ability in confidence and
communication so that he would be able to make the decisions in the righteous



Nature VS Nurture

Nature: it refers to all of the genes and
hereditary factors that influence who we are from our physical appearance to
our personality characteristics. It explain about 50 percent of behavioral
tendencies and 30 percent of temperament. And Minnesota studies- twins had
similar behavior patterns.

Nurture: it refers to all the environmental
variables that impact who we are, including our early childhood experiences,
how we were raised, our social relationships, and our surrounding culture.



Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory:

It is probably safe to say that the most well-known theory of
motivation is Maslow’s need hierarchy theory Maslow’s theory is based on the
human needs. Drawing chiefly on his clinical experience, he classified all
human needs into a hierarchical manner from the lower to the higher order.

Needs: These needs are basic to human life
and, hence, include food, clothing, shelter, air, water and necessities of
life. These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life. They
exert tremendous influence on human behavior. These needs are to be met first
at least partly before higher level needs emerge. Once physiological needs are
satisfied, they no longer motivate the man.

Needs: After satisfying the physiological
needs, the next needs felt are called safety and security needs. These needs
find expression in such as economic security and protection from physical
dangers. Meeting these needs requires more money and, hence, the individual is
prompted to work more. Like physiological needs, these become inactive once
they are satisfied.

Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory

The psychologist Frederick Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and
prosed a new motivation theory popularly known as Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene
Theory. Herzberg conducted a widely reported motivational study on 200
accountants and engineers employed by firms in and around Western Pennsylvania.

McClelland’s Need Theory

Another well-known need-based theory of motivation, as opposed to
hierarchy of needs of satisfaction-dissatisfaction, is the theory developed by
McClelland and his associates. McClelland developed his theory based on Henry
Murray’s developed long list of motives and manifest needs used in his early
studies of personality. McClelland’s need-theory is closely associated with
learning theory, because he believed that needs are learned or acquired by the
kinds of events people experienced in their environment and culture.  

for Achievement: This is the drive to excel, to
achieve in relation to a set of standard, and to succeed. In other words, need
for achievement is a behavior directed toward competition with a standard of
excellence. McClelland found that people with a high need for achievement
perform better than those with a moderate or low need for achievement and noted
regional/ national differences in achievement motivation.



chand, S. (n.d.). explain the theories of
motivation. Retrieved from Motivation Theories: Top 8 Theories of
Motivation – Explained!:

Motivation Theories: Top 8 Theories of Motivation – Explained!







Introduction for leader

A leader is  a person or
thing that holds a dominant or a superior positions within its field and is
able to exercise a high degree of 
control or influence over others .Every leader has their own style and

Leader’s profile

Date of birth: October 2, 1869

Place of Birth: Porbandar, British India
(now Gujarat)

Date of Death: January 30, 1948

Place of Death: Delhi, India

Cause of Death: Assassination

Professions: Lawyer, politician,
activist, writer

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an eminent freedom activist and an
influential political leader who played a dominant role in India’s struggle for
independence. Gandhi is known by different names, such as Mahatma (a great
soul), Bapuji (endearment for father in Gujarati) and Father of the Nation.
Mahatma Gandhi, as he is most commonly referred to, was instrumental in
liberating India from the clutches of the British. With his unusual yet
powerful political tools of Satyagraha and non-violence, he inspired several
other political leaders all over the world including the likes of Nelson
Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr and Aung San Suu Kyi. Gandhi, apart from helping
India triumph in its fight for independence against the English, also led a
simple and righteous life, for which he is often revered. Gandhi’s early life
was pretty much ordinary, and he became a great man during the course of his
life. This is one of the main reasons why Gandhi is followed by millions, for
he proved that one can become a great soul during the course of one’s life,
should they possess the will to do so. 


Mahatma Gandhi was a very empowering and
visionary leader, not only because he empowered all the Indians on a salt march
to corrupt the British economic system. He inspired all Indians to understood
and learn resistance through nonviolent civil disobedience. Gandhi was a
visionary leader and he gave Indians a new inspiration in their civilization.
He stablished himself has a slave of the people of India empowering the general
public. He made it his policy to practice what he preached even the small
things like spinning yarn to make his clothes also he resorted to simple and
poor living just like millions in the country, because of these good behaviors
public started to trust him in every ways and people already had great honor
and hopes in him due to what he has achieved.

In India, Gandhi established the
acknowledgment by leading through example, he established himself as a slave of
the people of India, empowering the general public. He made it his policy to
practice what he preached, even the small things like spinning yarn to make his
clothes. He resorted to simple and poor living, just like millions in the
country, hence people looked at Gandhi as one of their own, and they could see
their own sufferings in him. Gandhi had already been recognized through
his work and movements in South Africa. People already had great honor and
hopes from him due to what he had achieved, his non-violent methods were also
very well respected within the Indian society. Since he was already
visionary and empowering, Mahatma Gandhi was a Transformational
leader. He always empowered his followers towards success, he gave them hope
where there may be none. One of the most outstanding qualities of Gandhi
which makes him a great transformational leader of modern history was his long
term vision, self-confidence which was perhaps perceived as someone who was
stubborn and strong principles of righteousness.

Since he was already visionary and
embowing, Mahatma Gandhi was a transformational leader. He always empowered his
followers toward success. He gave them hope where there may be no one and the
most outstanding qualities of Gandhi, self-confidence which was perhaps
perceived as someone who was stubborn and strong principle of righteous.




Mahatma Gandhi came into the world on October 2, 1869 and went out
on January 30, 1948. Gandhi was an honorable politician. Many people in the
world get inspired and want to be like him. He is seen as a hero who gained
India’s liberation from Britain and unfair laws. In 78 years this man took
stands, had such courage, and determination to accomplish whatever he set his
mind to. The obstacles he faced did not stop him in any way. Mahatma
fulfilled his life-long goal of India becoming an independent country.  Though some people like Nathuram Godse did
not like him and assassinated him, the majority of people loved him as the ‘father
of nation’ and the ‘great soul’. Gandhi was a man who was able to fast for his
people’s freedom and was not afraid to go to jail. He was always ready to
sacrifice. He proved that it is possible to change the world with just one
voice through courage and determination.

(Information about gandhiji, n.d.), (sites, n.d.) (Blogger, 2011)




Blogger. (2011, may 4). conclusions for gandhi.
Retrieved from Conclusion:
Information about gandhiji. (n.d.). Retrieved from Cultural India:
sites, G. (n.d.). Information about gandhiji.
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