Coaching and mentoring within
the Royal Marines and wider Navy
(UNSURE HOW TO START/ WILL
WAIT UNTIL MAIN BODY IS COMPLETED)
ESSAY PART 1
The Purpose and introduction of coaching and mentoring
within the Royal Marines and wide Naval Service.
These paragraphs will list,
explore and critically assess 4 purposes in 2011-present in which the Naval
Service implemented a coaching and mentoring culture into the royal marines and
the wider Navy. The overall aim in 2011 was to instil a coaching culture, with
it established and effective at all levels by 2015 in order to conduct a full
review. The key purposes were as follows:
1.Provide relevant training to all personnel to enable
them to understand the principles and employ coaching techniques where
realisation is a key component in any coaching and mentoring journey. It is the
beginning of the coachee’s journey to goal attainment. Parsloe and Leedham, (2009)
hypothesis’s that self realisation for the need of coaching and mentoring is
S. and Furnham, A. (2016) also researched the importance of coaching in
which if executed correctly will show large positive outcomes to including well-being, career satisfaction and goal attainment.
2. Award competencies for organically
synthesised qualifications in which can be governed using the policies laid
down by the Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) .Coaching Workshop 1
(CW1) and Coaching Workshop 2 (CW 2), were formed in order to provide a measure
of regulatory policies in which to coach subordinate development and enable
those who have completed the required training to be identified and used. This purpose
is supported by Frisch, (2005) who beliefs this can benefit the organisation
financially as it maintains coaching to employees in the workplace but without
the justification and expense of bringing in external coaches when training and
development budgets are under scrutiny. One variable that cannot compete with
external coaching is the fact Internal coaches are often part of the HR
department (education officer as commando units) and arguably lack the
experience or qualification that specialist coaches have (Frisch, 2005). This
would be counteracted succesfully provided those in the organisation
participating in workshop 1 and workshop 2 maintain the policies set. (St
John-Brooks, 2014; Rock and Donde, 2008) concurs as this will help alleviate many
challenges for the internal coach including; confidentiality issues, ethical
issues, and confidence not only within themselves but also confidence from the
3. Ensure coaching skills and ability are
recognised and effectively reported on as part of the MPAR/SJAR(mid period
appraisal review /soldiers joint appraisal review )process (within the
subordinate development area).
is conducted half way through the reporting period, which provide feedback to
subordinates as well as objectives and coaching points. It supports the GROW
model which is a successful tool helping develop the coach. The model also
delivers sound structural integrity for the subordinate to follow and learn. This
theory is also supported by Grochalska, M. (2014) who believed the using
the GROW model through coaching can support the teacher’s development and
practice as a coach. SJAR is at the end of the reporting year, a complete
indepth breakdown of the employees 12 month review , providing grades which
provide quantitive data when conducting an analysis of a coachees performance
over time as well as a narrative in which qualitative data can be assessed.
Finally it provides subordinates with achievable goals , set by the employees
line manager If implemented correctly . Appraisals are pivitol in the
underlying measurement of success not only in employee performance but also
coaching and mentoring outcomes. Capelli, P. and Conyon, M. (2017)
concluded from a deep analysis of Performance appraisals that they’re
ubiquitous in organizations because they essentially give the employer feedback
and affect employee outcomes. The purpose of ensuring coaching and mentoring
talents is clearly successful on many platforms however this topic will be
covered in greater detail in the final part of the essay(part 3).
4. Enable units and establishments to develop
and self-assess a coaching culture, without necessitating extra resource or
training and to provide a mechanism to report to what degree a coaching culture
Although some argue adopting a coaching
culture in large scale organisations may prove difficult, if coaching culture
is developed in an efficient manor , with all involved self-realising the
positives it, it will affect organisational outcomes for the better. To support
this ,look to the NHS.A huge organisation, having decided to measure the
effects of a coaching culture where engineered a practise in the form of an independent,
solution-focused evaluation of an Expert Internal Coaching program. It asses
accreditations up to level 5 by the Institute of Leadership and Management
(ILM). Of this, it was clear to observe a similar purpose having been replicated,
not intentionally, by the Naval Service and Royal Marines. Abington (2013) offers the conclusion that the program, having been designed to give participants a solid foundation in core
coaching skills in order to increase their knowledge as well as confidence so
that they can then create an internal team of coaches specific to their organisation.
Abington (2013) continues to portray the
power of internal coach’s that can provide a confident, credible, ethical and
professional service in order to support the improved performance, change and
leadership development. One key argument against this would be the hardest
variable to control in the earlier stages of development; ensuring the initial
coaches follow the guidelines and policies laid down by the Institute of
Leadership and Management , if this fails it has potentially detremental
effects. Parsloe and Leedham, (2009) expresses the view Of some who have spent resources attaining
particular levels of competence and specialist knowledge could possibly also
This following will show various diagrams,
firstly the coaching and mentoring points of contact within the Naval Service
before describing the current layout of the Royal Marines , giving a deeper
view into the organisational structure, with current deployments. Constantly
adapting to operational deployments, structural change implicates thes royal marines
coaching and mentoring. Once all 3 diagrams have been listed it will be
followed by a detailed critical analysis of exactly how its structure can cause
Appendix 1.1 (as above) shows
the Naval Coaching and Mentoring points of contact. Despite the size of the
Royal Marines it only has one reference,(highlighted in green) CTCRM (Commando
Training Centre Royal Marines), which is the Royal Marines primary and only
training establishment. Providing one singular governing body specific to
coaching and mentoring in the organisation is a logical and useful practise as
it can provide one single standard of coaching and mentoring training. This
lends itself to become a better controlled variable in what is seemingly an
unregulated topic .The coaching profession is currently unregulated so it
relies on the voluntary means of conscientious coaches to continually develop
their competence Reissner and Du Toit, (2011) This assessment shows that in
unregulated instances , controlling as many variable as possible will help this
chances of positive outcomes.
Appendix 1.2 shows a typical
commando unit key events list over a month. (all locations have been removed
for operational security reasons). This chart only shows key events which
require a high level of manpower, draining most of the unit. No coaching and
mentoring is able to take place whilst on deployment as operational needs must
be met first and foremost. There is very little opportunity for long term
coaching goals due to lack of opportunity/resources to reach the coaching goals
set. Lack of opportunity can prove costly not just from a coaching and
mentoring perspective but also organisational effectiveness and retention. In a
direct correlation with the US navy, Snodgrass, G (2014) researched problems in
retention. He critically suggested ways to aid
retention. Snodgrass, G (2014) believed the US
Navy should provide opportunity sometime prior to command for advanced
education. Better availability of further education will likely improve
retention and ultimately increase skill diversity as well as a broader perspective
in Navy leadership. While the same basic drivers of retention exist for US Navy
personnel, Millennials place a greater emphasis on being supported. Coaching
and mentoring is a form of support categorically used talent growth,
performance development or underperformance
Snodgrass, G (2014).
value of coaching and mentoring and/or coaching and mentoring activities in the
organisational development and growth of this organisation. Establishing what may be the implications of
this in the organisations future.
Introduction to AFCAS survery
In 2015, having attempted to
implement a coaching and mentoring culture within the Royal Marines , a review
and case study was conducted in order to understand the true value of it within
the Royal Marines . Qualitive data was collated, firstly by taking in
questionnaires specifically from Royal Marines only in the form of the Armed
Forces Continuous Attitude Survey. The primary control measure of the survey to
ensure a truthful account of employees views upon the organisation was to
ensure, regardless of opinion, there were to be absolutely no ramifications
regardless of extreme views against the establishment. All surveys were not
compulsory however employees self realised the opportunity for change if they
conveyed their views. This article will ass one of the key findings.
The key findings that support the value of coaching
The review arrived upon
unforeseen manpower issues not assessed in 2011.This meant that now, more than
ever retention positive, people focused, activities such as coaching would be crucial
going forward. A recurring result from qualitive feedback received shown
certain behaviours in coaching and mentoring that increased operational
capability by improving the development, performance, motivation and retention
of the naval service.
The findings above further
underpinned by Theeboom et al. (2013) who
carried out a meta-analysis on the effects coaching has on many different
organisations. The results support large positive effect sizes which further
implicate that the principles of coaching are positive and valuable, regardless
of the organisation.In light of this it is also imperative to implicate the
shortcomings of the study and how it relates to coaching and mentoring within
the Royal Marines. Theeboom et al. (2013) clearly highlights several
methodological issues that need to be addressed in future studies on coaching
effectiveness such as the lack of longitudinal investigations and the fact that
most studies exclusively rely on self-reports’. This provides a counterargument
against the use of the AFCAS survey meaning those involved in the participation
may value coaching and mentoring to a high degree in self-reflection but may
not actually be achieving annual targets on their individual SJARs.
Avoiding dependency to maximise initiative and
Creating a strong coaching
culture will bring a positive attitude to all methods of training and
encourages the individual to achieve the desired result. Instilling a sense of
self efficiency and ownership of goals form an organisational perspective will contribute
towards subordinate development. ‘self-efficacy moderates the
relationship between mentoring and personal learning, relationship quality, and
communication satisfaction. interaction effect of mentoring and self-efficacy
on job performance is mediated by personal learning, relationship quality, and
communication satisfaction’ Jyoti, J. and Sharma, P. (2017).
A coaching approach to MPAR/SJAR
One area of good practise is
the use of an enhanced MPAR proforma to push ownership onto the individual to
really think about their objectives and development needs as well as instilling
responsibility to ensure these objectives are met. Because of the value placed in coaching and
mentoring, the Royal Marines have implemented the SJAR Records Card (SRC) which
facilitates the above. Referring to appendix 1.2 the SRC helps by elevating
long periods without feedback from line managers.
Coaching for war
Naval military training used
to be the preserve of very load instructors that intimidated as much as
educated. By contrast current weapon training , especially to the mand
indiciudal augmentees destines for hot was zones regularlt reaceive plaudits for
the mature coaching sttle employed. The insrtructors build and maintain a
rapport allowin the students to learn and practive a skill that may soon save
thir lives of the lives of those around them.
Coaching for morale and retention
Analysis of AFCAS research in
the royal marines clearly shows that the most admired line managers build and
maintain rapport though coaching behaviours such as developing and supporting
their subordinates. Rapport through coaching and mentoring increases relationship
quality between the management and subordinates which mediates other factors
for a positive outcomes. However the coachee must ensure they respond. ‘self-efficacy
moderates the relationship between mentoring and personal learning,
relationship quality, and communication satisfaction. interaction effect of
mentoring and self-efficacy on job performance is mediated by personal
learning, relationship quality, and communication satisfaction’ Jyoti, J. and
Sharma, P. (2017).
, DO NOT WORRY ABOUT DOING THIS PART AS I STILL HAVE TO FINISH IT HOWEVER ANY
GUIDANCE ON THE CONCLUSION AT THE END WILL BE HELPFUL, will put references in
alphabetical order in morning)
PART 3Identify and critically evaluate the complex
organisational issues associated with coaching and mentoring and evidence your
analysis with appropriate theoretical and academic knowledge.
Points for allaboration
APPRAISALS/military BIAS / favouritism
Job that is 24/7
a negative is noticed over positive , must be consistently good behaviour
Someone who is of
a certain specialisation my favour their own spec over someone else as they are
not a SME
Coachs should be
reported and have the appraisal grades they handed out checked to ensure
standard doesn’t deviate too far from the rest of the appraisals conducted by
other members of management.
SRC now over
shorter term coaching
Insert back of
src card in order to show more accurate guidelines showing the corps has
accepted its short comings
every 2 years to new relationships (src card helps keep reporting up to date)
Grow model works
but REGROW would combat long deployments in order to refresh coachees current
status on goal attainment.
when coach’s start practicing without seemingly appropriate levels of
competence. Poor coaching can be detrimental, both to the recipient and to the
reputation of the organisation. The coaching profession is currently
unregulated so it relies on the voluntary means of conscientious coaches to
continually develop their competence. Some knowledge of psychology and
awareness of the potential detriment that poor practice can have would be
advantageous in preventing harm to
recipients but even high levels of knowledge may not prevent poor levels of
practice. The lack of regulation also allows for the possibility of a risk of
deception and manipulation from unprincipled coaches eager to win business
Reissner and Du Toit, (2011). This often implicates those who have not achieved
a ‘psychological contract’ with their coachee , not finding the correct
boundaries despite having the guidance of various coaching qualifications.
GROW model used but REGROW
could be used coaching session models that
recognise the literative nature of the coaching engagement and explicitly
provide a framework for incor-
porating the learning from the prior session into
the current session.The RE-GROW model is one way that this can be achieved
(Greene & Grant, 2003).
Analysis on coaching and
mentoring structure available through COC. No formal structure could be
implemented , 2 month coaching review
As an organisation we should
begin to the PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPONENT. ROYAL MARINES TO
DEVELOP A GREATER UNDERSTAND OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPONENT
The effectiveness of coaching can be enhanced
if coaches are familiar with multiple psychological models, can hold these
in mind simultaneously, and are able to apply them as appropriate to their
clients—a capacity we refer to as model agility. To illustrate this
capacity we first explore some of its ramifications and parallels to the
challenges of leaders as well as leadership coaches
It also assumes these do not
form a complete approach, because organizational-dynamics, cultural, and other
factors also create a context within which the coach and client operate
Kauffman, C. and Hodgetts, W. (2016)
EFFECTS OF COACHING AND
ORGANISATIONAL(use in part 3 for retention)
this study has found that a number of
individual-level outcome measures have been found to increase through the use
of coaching, including well-being, career satisfaction and goal attainment.
Organisational level outcomes have been less explored, but initial results
point to coaching impacting peer and subordinate ratings of coachees ‘leadership
behaviours and having positive effects on those that work close to coachees Grover, S. and Furnham, A. (2016)
Qualita-tive analysis provides a unique insight
into complex phenomenon 88, such as coaching, and can be incredibly useful to
guide where quantitative research should be focused. As such we recommend that
researchers continue to leverage qualitative research but not to the extent
that they forgo quantitative analysis. Qualitative research is more likely to
be used during the initial stages of exploration of a subject matter
10 and coaching is now at a point where more
rando-mised control studies are needed as well as meta-analyses that include
more than 25 studies. Grover, S. and
Furnham, A. (2016)
The Key findings from the
AFCAS survey showed no negative feedback from coaching and mentoring which
would lead to believe employees have either undergone it, benefiting or not
taken part in the survey. Those employees are the targets for future coaching
and mentoring sessions. This essay has showed that a lack of opportunity can
affect organisational morale and retention which is echoed by Snodgrass, G
A. (2013) Croydon Health Services NHS Trust creates an
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A. (2011) Power and the tale: coaching as storyselling, Journal of Management
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Parsloe, E. and Leedham, M.
(2009) Coaching and Mentoring: Practical conversations to improve learning (2nd
Edition). London, United Kingdom: Kogan Page Limited.
St. John-Brooks, K. (2014)
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Rock, D. and Donde, R. (2008)
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Frisch, M. H. (2005)
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Theeboom, T., Beersma, B., & van Vianen, A. E.
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level outcomes in an organizational
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