Chris Johns’ model for reflection, 2000, was created with nursing practitioners in mind but can also be used in other areas. Johns’ recommends that this model is good for a learner who is just starting to learn about the process of reflection and using it within their practise. The model that John’ has created sets out five questions that should be used to prompt learners thinking, which then are broken down into more prompts to encourage the development of the reflection process further and make this more detailed. These questions are as follows:
Description of the experience: describing the here and now, important factors in the experience, important background, clarifying the key processes that will be reflected upon
Reflection: describing what the goal was, why was intervention required, consequences of the actions and who for, reflecting on feelings during the experience for the learner and customer and how do you know this
Influencing factors: factors that influenced the learners decision in making certain choices for example internal and external, what sources did or could have played a part in this
Could I have dealt with the situation better? Thinking about other choices, and the consequences of these
Learning: feelings now the experience has past, understanding of the situation that has been and will be in the future, how has it changed the learners knowledge. This also includes Barbara Carper’s patterns of knowing (1978) which are Aesthetics: our own experiences, Empirics: scientific knowledge, Ethics: moral knowledge and Personal: self-awareness.
This model then also recommends the ‘looking in’ and ‘looking out’ method which helps the learner to reflect more fairly upon themselves and their experiences.
Looking in – find a space to focus, with the learner paying attention to their own thoughts and feelings, and writing these down
Looking out – this is the description of the situation and what part of the experience is important, the learner begins to answer questions under the Aesthetics, Personal and Ethics categories before writing about how the learner was influenced, what sources were informative or could have been used for information. Johns’ model then also adds in Reflexivity which suggests that the learner reflects on past experiences, what could have gone better, how the learner can support others with this experience having reflected upon it, and also any new feelings about the situation.