CHAPTER Recruitment Recruitment can be explained as the process



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The human resource is the most important asset of an organization. The
success or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the calibre of
people working therein. Without positive and creative contributions from
people, organizations cannot progress and prosper. In order to achieve the
goals or the activities of an organization, they need to recruit and select
people with requisite skills, qualifications and experience. While doing so
they have to keep the present as well as future requirements of the
organization in mind.


Definition of Recruitment

       “Recruitment is the process of
searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to
apply for the job.”- Edwin B.Flippo


Meaning of Recruitment

Recruitment can be explained as the process of searching suitable
candidates for the job vacancy from different sources. It is the process that helps in taking decision whether the
applicants are suitable for the fill the vacancy or not. It is clearly in the
interest both the organization as well as applicants.

        In human resource management,
recruitment is the process of finding and hiring the best and most qualified
candidate for a job opening, in a timely and cost effective manner.

         It is one whole process, with a full
lifecycle, that begins with identification of the needs of the company with
respect to the job, and ends with the introduction of the employee to the
organization. It is a joining process which tries to bring together job seekers
and employers. The efficient process of recruitment maybe helpful to describe

What resources you want?

What resources are available?

Where and how they can be found?

History of Recruitment

        Recruitment emerged as a result of World War II. As
soldiers were called to war, gaps were created in the work-place. From here,
the employment agencies were born and these agencies began advertising for
those who were not called into military duty to fill the vacancies left behind
by those who went to war.

By the 1950’s, people created resumes that depicted their personal
profiles and skills. During the early days, a consultant’s aim was to satisfy
the requirements of the candidates but in 1970 there was a shift in focus.

  As the economy grew, recruiters began to work
with clients as these expanding businesses began to outsource their hiring
needs. However, the recruitment industry had a very different process as modern
technology and the internet were yet to exist. The initial main tools of
recruitment consisted of bulletin boards, which led to paid advertisements in
the newspapers. Recruitment was dependant on word-of-mouth and face-to-face
applications. As well as storing this information proved to be extremely tiring
and difficult, as CVs were kept as mass paper files, making applications
difficult to access and sort through.

The invention of the computer lightened the load for recruiters with the
arrival of Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) and candidate databases which could
store and search through applications much faster and more efficiently,
improving the process for recruiters. The mid-90’s saw the introduction of the
World-Wide-Web, which meant recruiters could pull advertising away from
conventional means such as newspapers, and explore a global world of job
advertising and candidates.

This is where the concept of ‘head-hunting’ really took off. Skip ahead
a few years and social networks made the search for strong skillsets much
easier, with networks such as LinkedIn dedicating themselves to employers and

 With the rapid growth of
technology the recruiters can store applicants and quickly dig them up the
second they see a job opening, making the process faster, more efficient and

The future for recruitment is
unpredictable. As social networking and internet-based resources expand
globally and quicker than ever, smaller businesses are able to head-hunt for
themselves and cut out the middle man and avoid the costs of an agency.
However, it is the agencies that work to supply only the best candidates to
clients. Adhering to the niche sectors and specific requirements associated
with a particular role.


Sources of Recruitment


Ø  Internal sources – This involves recruiting candidates within an
organization to fill the vacancy. Different methods of internal recruitment

ü  Internal advertisement

ü  Word of mouth

ü  Promotions

ü  Retired employees

ü  Former employees for part

Ø  External sources – This involves recruiting a candidate through
references, networks, job portals or by approaching recruitment agencies.
Different methods of external recruitment are.

ü  Job portals

ü  Recruitment agencies

ü  Walk in

ü  Campus interviews

ü  Job ads on newspapers or


General process of Recruitment

Ø  Step 1- Form a selection committee

First, you’ll need to
decide who will be making the hiring decisions. This group of people will be
your “selection committee”. If you run a small business, your selection
committee might only include you. But in most organisations, you’ll have at
least two people on your committee. For larger organisations, consider up to
four. Members of your selection committee should be objective, and should
represent your company’s best interests. You’ll also have to make sure the
members understand the vacancy you’re trying to fill, and have a good
understanding of equal opportunities.

Ø  Step 2- Write a job

You will attract
better candidates if you write a good job description. Remember that a good job
description should work two ways. It should make great candidates feel good
about applying for a job with your company, and it should be clear about the
kind of person you’re looking for.

Ø  Step 3- Post job advertisement

If you restrict
yourself to posting your brand new job advertisement in just one place, then you’re
limiting your reach. The more places you post your job advertisement, the more
chance you have of finding the perfect person. Of course, this can make it hard
to track your incoming applications, and it can get a little bit messy. To keep
things in order, try to make sure all applications arrive in one central
location. To maximise your chances of finding the best person for the role,
here are a few key places to post your job advertisement:

ü  Social

ü  Dedicated
job website

ü  Classified
ad boards

ü  Government
Job centre

If possible, aim to
contact all applicants immediately after they apply, to acknowledge their
application and to say thanks. You can normally automate this. In your
response, you might want to tell them what to expect next – such as when they
might hear from you. It will increase their confidence in you as an employer.

Ø  Step 4- Create a
shortlist and arrange interview

By now, you should
have plenty of CVs waiting on your desk. Now it’s time for you and your
selection committee to review applications, create a shortlist, and invite
candidates for an interview. To create your shortlist, you should give each
applicant a score. This score should be based on how well they meet the
criteria you set out in your job description. Candidates who do not meet
criteria crucial to the role should obviously be removed from the equation. It
is important you do not discriminate during the recruitment process, and this
includes the shortlisting.

Ø  Step 5- Conducting
interviews and review scores

should think about the questions you’re going to ask in advance. Last minute
scrambling could lead to a poor interview that doesn’t give you the information
you need, and it could make you look like a bad employer. The initial interview should last
between 30 and 40 minutes. Anything less might feel rushed, while anything more
might be too time consuming – especially if you have a lot of interviews to
perform. If you need to go into greater detail with your ideal candidates, then
don’t be afraid of planning two rounds of interviews. You can use the second to
interview the top few people from the first round, and go into greater detail
about the job role and responsibilities.

Ø  Step 6- Write your preferred
job description

Once you have your final shortlist, you and your
selection committee should compare scores, and decide who best fits the role.
This person will be your “preferred selection” – but be careful not to reject
other candidates too soon, as you may need to go back to them at a later date.
It is important to make your preferred selection based on merit – i.e. how good
you think the person will be at performing the role. It is easy to be biased
towards a certain candidate, based on things like existing friendships within
new team, or length of service with the company. Naturally, how well a person
gets along with their new team is an important consideration. But this doesn’t
mean you need to put two friends together at the expense of hiring somebody who
is not up to the role.

Ø  Step7- Check references

You should check your preferred selection’s
references and qualifications before you contact them. This could save you from
some very awkward situations. For example, imagine offering a person a key
position… only to find that none of their previous employers feel comfortable
providing a reference. Of course, references don’t necessarily make or break a
person’s abilities. But it still pays to check them out. If you’re noticing a
common theme from all previous employers – such as refusal to comment on
punctuality – then you might need to prepare yourself for an employee who is
perpetually late for work. When calling previous employers to get a reference,
you should try not to keep them on the phone for more than five minutes.

Ø  Step 8- Send a
formal job offer

You’re nearly done now. But even though the
candidate has expressed an interest in a role, it doesn’t make it a sealed deal
yet. You still need to send out a formal job offer and await their acceptance.
Once your new employee accepts their position; remember to inform unsuccessful
candidates as a matter of courtesy. It also helps to add them to your talent
pool for future.

Advantages of recruitment

Fresher skill and input- When a company goes with recruitment,
there is a quite better possibility of finding and identifying a fresher
candidate who is capable of delivering
new skills and inputs for the betterment of the company. Therefore,
hiring a candidate with recruitment makes things clear and better for the
company who is in desperate need of fresher skills and inputs for the overall
growth of the company.

Qualified candidates- Nowadays, when a company posts an
advertisement in the social media or newspaper. One common thing they look
for are well experienced and qualified candidate. With
recruitment advertising, the company can find a variety of qualified candidates
for the post offered. And eventually, this process helps to identify the
best candidates in a lot of skilled candidates.

Better competition- If the company needs candidates who
can provide creative ideas for the growth of the company, then the company
needs to go with recruitment process for the overall development of the
company. Therefore, once the company understands
the working nature of an external recruitment then there is a possibility that
the company might select a candidate with new and better creative ideas.

Better growth- By using a recruitment process, the
company can expect growth not just for the candidate, but actually the company
can expect it for itself also. When a company selects a candidate with high
potential, then there is a higher possibility of overall growth of the company.
The employees within the organization also broaden their capacity and may try
to match with the new talent.

Competitive spirit- When employees are recruited through
recruitment process, there whirls a competitive spirit in the organization
amongst the employees. They present themselves to be competitive with full
enthusiasm to work and match with the new employees. A healthy
competition takes place between the internal and external
employees and employees become efficient and trained.

Ø  Being fair- Recruitment process paves way for a fair means of
recruitment. Since the competition is open and wide, there is more opportunity
for candidates where they can apply for vacant positions in organizations. The
recruitment is done in a fair
manner equally for all candidates where internal politics is


Ø  Ideas from other
industries- Another smart
factor that can be observed from candidates recruited from recruitment process
is that they offer unique and new
ways which are followed in the competitor or other companies they
worked for. The organization can gain insight into various other aspects of
other industries by means of external recruitment.


Disadvantages of recruitment

A limited understanding about the
company- When a candidate is selected from an recruitment process, there is a
possibility that the candidate might have less chance of
understanding the environment of the company. And this lesser understanding
can make a big difference in the future activities of the company.

Higher risk- There is a possibility that the
candidate selected for the post is not
worthy of the position offered and he/she can take advantage of
their position in the company. This type of risk is very much common in a
recruitment process as most of the candidates applied for the job are total
strangers to the company.

Time consuming- The main disadvantages of recruitment
is that it is time consuming as
most of the companies post an advertisement of their company recruitment drive.
Then there is a quite possible chance of receiving a higher number applicant
for the post and the recruiter need to be very careful with their decision of
selecting the best candidate for each round of selection process. These
different rounds of selection take a bit longer as it involves a number of

High cost- As most part of the recruitment
process mainly deals with complete new candidates then the company need to come
up with a pay scale for that candidate which should value his/her skill and
ability. This can turn things a bit costly for the company as they are in need of new ideas and
to get such new and creative ideas from the potential candidate. The company
needs to provide him/her the best possible deal to refuse. With all these
aspects, the company needs to provide intense training for the candidates.
Screening large number of candidates consumes more money.

Invites unsuitable applicants- External advertising
methods are something that happens in large scale through print media and hence
a large number of applicants who are not fit for the job post are drawn in.
There are number of unsuitable candidates who line up for low level job


Definition of Selection

        “Selection activities follow a standard pattern,
beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with final
employment decision.” –Decenzo and

of selection

is a negative process and involves the elimination of candidates who do not
have the required skills and qualifications for the job proposed. It is also a
process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire
those with greater likelihood of success in job.

is the process of choosing most suitable candidate for the vacant position in
the organization. In other words, selection means weeding out unsuitable
applicants and selecting those individuals with prerequisite qualifications and
capabilities to fill the jobs in the organization.

           Most often, the selection and recruitment are
used interchangeably but however both have different scope. The former is a
negative process that rejects as many unqualified applicants as possible so as
to hire the right candidate while the latter is a positive process that
attracts more and more candidates and stimulates them to apply for the jobs.

factors affecting selection

Ø  Legal
consideration- human resource
management is greatly influenced by legislation, executive orders and court
decisions. Hiring managers must have extensive knowledge of the legal aspects
of selection.

Ø  Speed of decision
making- At times, speed is crucial and
a few phone calls and two brief interviews may constitute the entire selection
procedure. Considering a national search to select a chief executive officer
may take months. In bureaucracies, selection process often requires a
considerable amount of time.

Ø  Type of
organization- Prospective
employees in private sector is screened with regard to how they can help
achieve profit goals. Government civil service systems typically identify
qualified applicants through competitive examinations. Individuals being
considered for positions in non-profit organizations must not only be qualified
but also be dedicated to this type of work.

Ø  Probationary
period- Practice may be to check on
the validity of the process. If an individual perform the job during the
probationary period, the other selection tools are not needed.

process of selection

Ø  Step 1- Reception:
– In order to attract people with talent and skills,
a company has to create a good impression from stage 1. Employment
possibilities must be presented honestly and clearly. If the vacancy is not available,
then the applicant must be asked to contact the HR department after a suitable
period has elapsed.

Ø  Step 2- Screening
interview: -It is done to cut the cost by allowing only eligible to go
through future stages. The applications are examined by the junior executives
from the HR department. It is also called courtesy interview.

Ø  Step 3- Application
blank: -It is one of the most common methods to collect information of the
candidates. It is a brief history sheet of the employee’s background. The contents
of application blank are:

ü  Personal data (address, etc.)

ü  Physical data (height, weight, etc.)

ü  Educational data

ü  Previous employment data

ü  Data about extracurricular activities

ü  Reference (name of two or more people who certify
the suitability of the applicant to the advertised job)

Ø  Step 4- Selection
test: – A selection test is used to
measure the candidate’s behaviour, performance or attitude. It is standardized
to ensure uniform assessment. The different types of selection test used are;

ü  Aptitude test

ü  Personality test

ü  Simulation test

ü  Intelligence test

ü  Integrity test

Ø  Step 5- Selection
interview: – It is an oral
examination of candidates. Its purpose is sharing of information. It is one of
the most essential steps in the selection process. The different types of
interview conducted are:

ü  Non directive interview

ü  Depth interview

ü  Stress interview

ü  Group interview

ü  Individual interview

ü  Panel interview

ü  Formal interview

ü  Informal interview

Step 6- Medical examination: – Certain jobs require physical
qualities like clear vision, high stamina, clear tone of voice etc. a medical
examination revels whether the candidates possesses these qualities. Medical
examination can give the following information:

the applicant is medically fit for the specific job or not.

the applicant suffers from bad health which should be corrected before he can
work satisfactorily.

the applicants physical measurements are in accordance with the job
requirements or not.

Step 7- Reference check: – Candidates should give the names of
two or three references in their application forms. Information may be
collected from the previous employer or from co-workers. Telephone calls or
E-mail is used.

Step 8- Hiring
decision: – The concerned line
manager takes this decision. The decision is taken after soliciting the
required information gathered through different techniques discussed earlier.

Step 9- Intimation: – This is final step in the selection
process. Intimation should be given to both successful and unsuccessful

Difference between recruitment and selection

is involved with developing suitable techniques for attracting more and more
candidates. Whereas, selection is the process of finding out most suitable
candidate for the job in the organization.

function of recruitment precedes the selection process. Whereas the function of
selection is completed by making a job offer to the selected candidates.

policy specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides rules and
regulations for the implementation of the recruitment program. Whereas
selection policy consists of a series of methods or steps by which the
evaluation of candidate is done.

involves to find out the vacancy and to approach the potential candidates to
apply for such vacancies. Whereas selection process involves mutual decision
making, the organization decides whether or not to make job offer to the
candidate and the candidate decides whether or not to take the job offer.

is a linkage activity bringing together those with job and those seeking job.
Whereas selection involves comparison of behaviour, attitude and performance of
two or more persons.



The study focuses on the existing recruitment and selection process of “Ad
Astra Consultants” for its clients. The entire view of the project is taken by
primary data collection from the current employees of the company. The main aim
of “Ad Astra Consultants” is to provide an end to end HR solution across a wide
spectrum of industry verticals and levels.























        It is a difficult task for
organizations to search, recruit, and select talented people in today’s tight labour
market. As there are fewer qualified talents available, the competition is
intensifying. This    shortage leads the organizations
to conduct effective recruitment, selection to identify quality talents. What
is more is that acquiring the right talent is becoming an increasingly complex
and challenging activity. Organizations have to put more
efforts other than offering attractive salary to attract qualified talents.






















Ø  To find out how Ad Astra
Consultants provide its recruitment service to its clients.

Ø  Briefly identify how a
consultant unit works for its clients.

Ø  To analyse whether the
company meets the clients recruitment or not.

Ø  To know how the candidate
profile are sourced on behalf of the clients.









































Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application
in the investigation of matter. It comprises creative and systematic work
undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge of humans, culture and society
and use of this stock knowledge top devise new applications.

Research methodology id the process used to collect information and data
for the purpose of making business decisions. The methodology includes research
design, data collection methods, sampling methods, survey, analysis and


Research design