2.1 Definition of Poverty
In the popular scientific dictionary, the word “Poor” implies no treasure
(insufficient possession). In Indonesian language, the word “fakir” which also
translated into “poor man” is defined as condition of a very poor person.
Etymologically, the meaning of poverty is loaded with consumption problems. It
starts from the neo-classical period before in which poverty is only seen from
negative (imbalance) interaction between the worker and the wages earned.
Poverty can also be interpreted as a situation where a
person can not fulfill the needs of everyday life or could be said with a
condition of all-deficits in other words lacks of material, in which they are
not able to get the facilities of education, health services, and other
conveniences available in modern times.
Causes of Poverty
general, there are several factors which caused poverty, including the
Low Level of Education
A low level
of education can lead people to poverty. This is because the people have no
education skill that can be used to earn
income, raise their standard of living and be able to meet their needs.
Lack of Creativity
If people could use their creativity,
without any doubt they could have an income and able to raise their standard of
living. Also, they could use every aspect and infrastructure that exist to seek
and obtain income sources.
High Birth Rate
High birth rate also leads Indonesian People to poverty.
This is caused by large expenditure cost and it is possible the wealth will be
depleted over time. But, this won’t happen to a social group that has enough or
more incomes. They are not considered as poor social group, because they are
still able to support their family members. This seems to be mostly seen in big
Influence from the Environment
The environment can affect the level of poverty. Someone
who lives in a poor neighborhood will also carry the poverty flow. Moreover,
inside a group there are individuals that are unable to take care of themselves
and meet their needs. They are considered as ignorance groups or member of the
group who are always lazy to work.
Economic level of the social group could be seen
influencing clearly. A person from the poor, absolutely will also cause him to
become poor. Or, because their parents couldn’t fulfill all of their needs, so
they consider their life as destiny that has been determined by the Almighty.
Thus, they are lack of willingness and effort to change their condition.
Another factors which could be seen as real cause of poverty are a flow of
urbanization in big cities. Many people from village come to town and most of
them looking for work, without good skills.
Solutions to Overcome Poverty
is one of the most difficult social matters to be solved. Therefore, there are
several solutions to taking out Poverty
Problems of Malnutrition and Food Shortage
From the problem of
inequality in the amount of nutrition received compared to children with the
rich family and the poor family surely could influence to the child’s health
and mental. If the people get a good nutrition for a good food, it is expected
to reduce the level of poverty.
Education Opportunity for the Poor
Each child of a nation
that is categorized as poor should be the priority over Education Assistance
from the government. The government must create justification and equality in
the society in access to gain education.
Indonesian people that
are categorized as poor should be encouraged to create their own employment,
business, or company through training and capital provision. Thus, the society
could start entrepreneurship and the new job creation is expected to improve
the society welfare.
Poverty from the
Perspective of Pancasila
There are two principles of Pancasila which is related
with to this matter, those are the
Second Principle and the Fifth Principle, explained as follows
According to the Second Principle “A Just and Civilized
Poverty is very
contrary to the values of humanity. If there are people that can not fulfill
their needs and do not get access to education and good health service, it is
contrary to the values of humanity.
According to the Fifth Principle “Social Justices for All
Poverty shows that
injustice exists and could be felt directly. Poverty is a reflection of
injustice, such as differences food quality, access to education, good health
service, and economically in the income gap. Any gap between “The Rich” and
“The Poor” must be reduced.