CHAPTER2REVIEWOF LITERATURE AND STUDIESThis chapter will show the literatureand studies from foreign and local authors that are used by the researchers forfurther understanding of the subject matter of this research.Howtraffic affect commutersIn our daily lives commuters aredealing with long traffic and other transportation hindrances. Based on LTO’s (LandTransportation Office) study, in the past few years, there’s 2,101,148registered vehicles around Metro Manila. The traffic worsens every year,compared to past years.
Inquirer.net listed some impacts of traffic oncommuters: Underperformance.Based on the Philippine Statistics Authority, half of the 37 million workers inthe Philippines take the easiest route in going to their respected companies everyday. Billions of students are also depending on public transportations. Longerthe hours the students and workers deal with long traffic may affect their performancephysically and mentally.
Unbalancedtime. People getting up earlier to prepare for work or school do not guarantee punctualitysince traffic is unpredictable, especially in times of rush hour. Overallfatigue. Having to seat hours at the bus while thinking of problems at schooland work causes stress to commuters. With addition of pollution and heat mayresult to having over fatigue and overtiredness. Inquirer.
net(2015) also suggested alternatives and tips on how commuters can protect theirhealth to prevent illnesses like drinking vitamins, exercise and balanced diet,proper sleep, using masks for protection from air pollution. Traffic has becomepart of every commuter’s lives, there is no easy way to escape from it, butthere is a way for commuters to overcome the negative effects from it by makingtheir lifestyles healthy as possible.Stressand Fatigue amidst Traffic clog Affect Your HealthDue to thunder storm that results toflood, most commuters spend hours on the road during rush hour and were caughtup by a terrible traffic clog along EDSA and its nearby roads. Considering rain or protesters conquering theroad are not the only reason for the traffic that we’ve been experiencing,above all, traffic clogs had been part of our daily life.
Moreover, accordingto Numbeo.com (2015), the Philippines placed fifth on the categories with theworse traffic in the whole world. Atraffic clog is not the only reason to cause delay on people with their labor orwith their errands but more studies shows that, being in a city with a neverchanging traffic will result in having a negative effect on your health. Incase of other commuters who were caught in a traffic clog, some of them wereexperiencing sleep deprivation specifically to those who are forced to wake upearly in the morning to avoid rush hour and get to work on time. Basedon The Telegraph (2013) “A week with less than six hours of sleep each nightcan lead you to 711 changes in how genes work.
” In additional, being sleep deprivedcan also affect the accomplishments, attention, andlong-term memory. Additionally, sleep deprivation can cause anxiety,exhaustion, frustration, impulsive behavior, lower immunity, and some mentalhealth problems. Furthermore, this can encourage to do drugs and alcoholconsumption.Preventing memory fromstress This study determines that stress hasa big impact to our memory and so Dr. Klemm invented this study.
According toWilliam R. Klemm Ph.D Memory Medic, It is notorious that stress can damage ourmemory. This sort of experience that many of us has been known. Academicperformances of students has becoming worse because of struggling in stress(Better Grades.
Less effort 2011) Often Experiencing stress may cause failureto our memory. Brain freezes, like Perry’s, other thoughts cannot apparent whenstress fills in our mind. Buy some of this came from the”fight or flight” response where stress triggered and the bloodstreampenetrates the adrenalin. (Memory power 101) When Adrenalin arises, itactivates the raising of heart rate and blood pressume and causes us to beafraid and anxious.
Laboratory experiments proves that the acceleration ofattentiveness has a beneficial effect on memory. And could injure our memory. There are some happenings duringstress that can drives the anterior pituitary gland’s release of ACTH, to getrid of cortisol toward the inside of bloodstream.
For short, cortisol has theability to fight or prevent the stress. The white blood cells mobilizing andenhancing immune system. Lastly, if we keep on encountering stress the processof impairment will gets worst and the word cure will be impossible Effects on academic performance of schoollocation Theobjective of this study is to find out which distance affected the student’sacademic performance in Makambako Town council’s secondary schools. Mhiliwa(2015), the researcher, conducted his research in five community secondaryschools in Makambako TC. The data used in his research was gathered involved 2educational officers, 12 teachers and 200 students (consists of 80 boys and 120girls) with the use of semi-structured interview guide, questionnaires anddocumentary review, through random purposive sampling technique. The data is determinedby using inductive analysis procedures. Then find out that the longer thedistance students travel in going to school, resulted in arriving to schoolslate and with empty stomachs.
Mhiliwa claimed that location of school has leadto mass failure to most students and some have caused dropout thus fail toattain their educational goals.Relationshipof school distance and academic achievement This study aimed to investigate the relationship betweenacademic achievement and school distance of primary school pupils. Thepopulation was comprised by all the primary schools in the said location. Astructured questionnaire served as the instrument and was established using thetest re-test method to ensure its reliability. Using the Pearson Product MomentCorrelation (PPMC), the researchers analyzed the data gathered. The findings ofthe study revealed that there is a positive, but very low positive, relationshipbetween the academic achievement of primary school pupils in Ovia North-EastLocal Government Area and school distance. There is no significant relationshipexplained between the two variables.Longjourneys to school undermine Education “Negative impact of taking long journeys to school have affectsa student’s health and on their education achievement levels” claimed one ofthe conclusions of a recent study on absenteeism by the scientific institute ofthe German health Care insurance company AOK.
According to VBE (Verband Bildungand Erziehung) federal and national President Udo Beckmann, neither educationauthorities nor national governments examined the impact of long travel hours onthe student’s health and learning abilities in going to or from schools. Heclaimed that travelling for up to three hours per day tires a child’s body morethan in adults. Healso stated other consequential factors that affects a student physically andpsychologically like carrying a schoolbag longer, getting up earlier to go toschool and doing assignments later as well as reduction of free time necessaryfor a balanced life. Because of these reasons, students may suffer the outcomeslike exhaustion and headaches. Adultsthat are part of a working environment have dealt and experienced such symptomsand are mentally stronger than children, which are much more subject to stressand exhaustion.