CHAPTER enriched by natural major and minor minerals the

CHAPTER #1Introduction1.

1 The Study AreaAbbottabad,the city of pines, is located in the Hazara region of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwaprovince, in Pakistan. Abbottabad is also known as the City of Pines, as youcan see a lot of pine trees everywhere in this city.Abbottabad is located in the Orash Valley, 50 km northeast of thecapital of Pakistan, Islamabad. Abbottabad is the capital of the AbbottabadDistrict. The city is blessed to have a pleasant weather all year round.

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DistrictAbbottabad is the headquarter of Hazara Division, positioned at an altitude of1,225 meter, lies between 33° 50′ & 34° 23′ North latitude and 73° 35’& 73° 31′ East Longitude. The District is spread over an area of 1967 Sq.Km. Total population of the district in 1991 was 194,632. Study area iscomprised of the towns of Abbottabad with population 7,764, the Tehsil,District headquarter & Nawanshahr (4,114) with 359 villages. The totalreported area of district is 179,653.5 hectares out of which 20.3% is occupiedby forest and 48.

2% by agriculture, the remaining area has been occupied byshrub land, rangeland & thin vegetation. Abbottabad is a well-knowntouristic spot for its cold temperature, pleasant weather, heavy rainfall &snowfall. Although the soil of the district is very fertile and enriched bynatural major and minor minerals the district has a very small land underagriculture. Total area of the district is 178401 acres but only 63372 acres’areas is under cultivation with 61396 acres as cropland.

Total area underforest is 5291 ha with further division of Reserved and Guazara forest on 2546ha of the district (DCR, 1998.District Abbottabad was once partof Hazara division, which covered the present-day districts of Abbottabad,Battagram, Haripur, Kohistan and Mansehra. The district takes its name from thecity of Abbottabad, named after James Abbott, the first deputy commissioner ofHazara, who served from 1849 to 1853 under the British colonial administrationof India. The terrain of the area is both rugged and scenic, and its locationat the base of the Himalayas lends it a temperate climate throughout most ofthe year. Muzaffarabad and Rawalpindi districts in the East, Haripur andRawalpindi districts in the South and Haripur districts in the West.  1.

2        Physical features and Topography It is spread over an area of 1,967 km2(178,401 ha)., and is located in predominantly mountainous terrain. The averageelevation of peaks in the district ranges from 2500 m to 3313 m ( Miranjanipeak, the highest point). These mountains form a part of the lesser Himalayasand dominate the landscape (Pastakia,2004).1.3        Geology and SoilTherocky ground of Abbtottabad is rich in minerals, containing deposits ofbiotite, granite, limestone, phyllite, schite, slate, soapstone and quartz.

These minerals soil occur as residual deposits in the hills and and alluvialdeposits on the valley floors. Most of the soil is grey in colour (under moistforests) and coarse in texture. The soil is formed by snow deposits as well aswater and sedimentary rock and is mostly dry framed for subsistence cropping.Farm soil may be classified into four categories:1.      Loam and clay, mainly non-calcareous;2.

      Loam, steep and shallow soils (humidmountainous region)3.      Loam and clay, partly non-calcareouswith loess traces: and4.      Loam with stones, and shallow (sub-humidmountain region).Theinceptisols form level, productive basin plains, while the chromudertic soilsfor, piedmonts and undulated, dissected gullied lands. The soils of Ayubia andBagnotar range from humid to sub humid tropical continental. The climate andtopography of the district is divided more or less naturally into three parts:1.Theplains of Havelian and Rash valley in Abbottabad, suitable for vegetable andfruit production;2.The mild hills of the Tanawal – Sherwan belt, well suited for livestock andfodder; and 3.

The high hills of the Galliyat, suitable for tourism, frostery and someoff-season vegetable cultivation.1.4        Temperature  Due to mountainous area of Abbottabad,Abbottabad’s summer season starts lilltle bit late and temperature remainsmoderate. Temperature starts rising in the month of May and become high in themonth of June and July and the minimum and maximum temperature recorded in themonth of May is 19.

67 and 32.41 respectively while the winters arecomparatively severe causing heavy rainfall and snow at temperature reach belowfreezing point.1.5        RainfallAbbottabadis an active monsoon region. The average precipitation occurs during the monthof July and August which is about 60% while in month of June and September itis unevenly distributed as 40%.

1.6        Population 1951- 9Between1951 and 1988, Abbottabad’s population grew from 319,000 to 881,666, amountingto a cumulative growth of 176.2% and an annual average growth rate of 3.75% .Incomparison, the population of the province as a whole during the same periodgrew by a cumulative 285.2% with an annual growth rate of 6.

1%, while thenational growth rate stood at 6.1%. .Betweenthe 1981 and 1998 census periods, the average annual growth rate for thedistrict amounts to 1.82%, compared to the 2.81% average annual growth for theprovince.

At this rate, Abbottabad’s population is expected to double by 2047,compared to a similar increase by the year 2028 for the province as a whole(MSU 2000: 11). The 2001 population of Abbottabad is estimated at 935,000 withan average growth rate of 1.8%. 1.7        Rural and Urban compositionThetotal population of Abbottabad was 881,000 in 1998.Acoording to 1998 censusAbbottabad’s urban population stands at 157,699 (17.9% of the total population)while the rural population was 723,301 (82.

1 % of the total).1.8        Land UseAccordingto the Kreditanstalt fur Weideraufbau (KfW) forest resource survey, the totalreported area of the district is 179,653 ha, of which 20.3% is designated asforest and 48.2% as agricultural land. The remaining area consists ofrangeland, shrub land and sparse vegetation. The rainfall is heavilydistributed in the district with only 0.

399% of the total area underirrigation, compared to 11.1% in the whole Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 14.7% forsettled districts in the province (Go NWFP 2001a).1.9        EmploymentAccordingto the census of 1998 overall unemployment was as high as 31.41%. By gender31.84% of the districts men and 1.

05% of the women are unemployed. In ruralarea the unemployment rate is 30.45% while 33.5% of the people living in citiesare unemployed.1.

10      Women’s Role in societyWomenutilize many forest resources for cooking and heating. They play an importantrole in fuel collection. In particular, the collection of biomass is theresponsibility of women. 1.11      LanguagesTheprimary languages spoken in Abbottabad is Hindko.

In rural population it isused 94% while in urban it is 75%. Other languages spoken in the districts areUrdu, Pashto, Kohistani and Gojri etc.1.12      Famous peakMiranjani(3,313m) and Mukeshpuri are the highest peaks in this district.1.13      Parks and protected areasUnderthe Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation andManagement) Act of 1975, two areas have been designated with the district:Ayubia National Park and Qalanderabad game reserve. Both areas cover only 6% ofthe landed area of the district.1.

14      Ayubia National ParkEstablishedin 1984, this park covers an area of over 3,312 ha.1.15      Qalanderabad game reserveEstablishedin 1980 with an area of 8,940 ha.  1.

16      EducationAbbottabadhosts a large number of public and private schools and colleges, includingAbbottabad Public School, Ayub Medical College, Army Burn Hall College,Peshawar university of Engineering and Technology (Abbottabad campus) andPakistan International Public School and College. The city also hosts the firstprivate medical college for women in Pakistan, Women Medical College,established in 1999. Its literacy rate is higher than national average. 1.17      TourismTourismis one of the main sources of income in the mountainous areas.

Like many otherareas of the north, Abbottabad also benefits from foreign and domestic tourism.When summer arrives, a large number of tourists travel to Abbottabad. Thepopular tourist places in or close to Abbottabad are Ayubia national Park, Baragali, Shimla Hill, Dor River Valley (at Harnoi). Khaira gali,Thandiani andNathia Gali.Otherthan tourism,many people have settled in Abbottabad for educational purposes.Further Abbottabad saw an influx of migrants from Azad Kashmir after the 2005earthquake. People have also moved from Swat District and Waziristan whenoperations were held against the militants.1.

18      Customs and TraditionsAbbottabadis a well- cultured area, with a combination of modern and ancient cultures.The religious bonds are very tight and majority of the people are fond ofIslamic traditions and they follow the path of Allah. The customs of the cityinclude Hujra meetings (sitting), the Islamic traditions are quite prominent inrural areas and they have high moral values in the society.

1.19      CuisineThepeople of Abbottabad like to eat in daily routine maize, wheat and rice. InRural areas, Desi Ghee and Lassi are mostly used. People of Abbottabad wouldlike to eat out since it is the only major source of entertainment for them.

There are many famous restaurants in Abbottabad including Red Onion, UsmaniRestaurant,Nawabs ,Green Valley etc which serves a variety of Pakistani dishes.The Chicken Karahi, Chicken Korma, Sajji are very popular. The fast food chainslike KFC are also present in Abbottabad. Furtherthe town in Abbottabad, Nawanshehr and qalandrabad have an old bazaar which arefamous for its Chapli Kabab. 1.20      TourismTourismis one of the main sources of income in the mountainous areas of Abbottabad.Like many other northern areas. Abbottabad also has a benefit from foreign and domestic tourism.

insummer , a large number of tourists travel to Abbottabad. The popular touristplaces in or close to Abbottabad are Ayubia national Parkk, Bara gali, ShimlaHill, Dor River Valley (at Harnoi). Khaira gali,Thandiani and Nathia Gali.Other than tourism,many people have settled in Abbottabad foreducational purposes. Further Abbottabad saw an influx of migrants from AzadKashmir after the 2005 earthquake. People have also moved from Swat Districtand Waziristan when operations were held against the militants