Cavitation whosemodel of cavitation bubble dynamics, which was based

Cavitation in liquid medium and the dynamics of cavitation bubble has beena great interest of research since the early twentieth century. Due to therecent applications in Medical Science, Envioronmental Science, Technologyit is necessery to study the dynamics of cavitation bubble in liquid medium,cavitation bubble generation techniques, cavitation bubble detection techniquesetc.Lord Rayleigh rst studied the spherical bubble collapse, in an e ortto explain the damage of propellers of high speed boats and submarines in1917 1. He made the assumption that the liquid was incompressible and thecavity was empty. Furthermore, he neglected liquid viscosity, surface tension,evaporation, condensation, gas di usion, heat conduction, and instability(which leads to aspherical ow). Still, his results agreed fairly well withexperiment over a large portion of the bubble motion.Modi cations and extensions of Rayleigh’s work have been made by anumber of researchers. Herring 2 and Trilling 3, used the quasi-acousticapproximation (liquid velocities are small compared to the velocity of sound)to provide a rst-order correction for the compressibility of the liquid consideringsurface tension, viscosity and other properties of the liquid.Higher order compressibility e ects were treated by Gilmore 4 whosemodel of cavitation bubble dynamics, which was based on the Kirkwood-Bethe hypothesis 5, also includes viscosity, surface tension, and a constantgas content in the bubble.Flynn proposed a model very similar to Rayleigh-Plesset model but ittakes into account the compressibility in the far eld and in-compressility innear eld 6. His model describes the dynamical motions of small cavitationbubbles in liquids set into motion by an acoustic pressure eld. The mathematicalformulation takes into account heat conduction inside a bubble andin the surrounding liquid, and the e ect of viscosity, compressibility, andsurface tension of the liquid also taken into account.Keller and Miksis derived a cavitation bubble dynamics model for largeamplitude forced oscillation in a sound eld 7. Here they have consideredcompressibility of the liquid, constant velocity of sound in the liquid .In addition to these early studies, other reports have sought to makere nements and corrections to account for other conditions present during the4collapse. For example, Fujikawa and Akamatsu 8 have studied the bubbledynamics, accounting for condensation, heat conduction, and temperaturediscontinuity at the phase interface.In late 90’s some researchers have proposed bubble models for UltrasoundContrast Agent(UCA) encapsulating bubble. For example, De Jong9 and his group did some experimental studies in ultrasound contrast agentand modeling by their theoretical description of the vibration of an encapsulatedmicrobubble. This model was about gas bubble in water and thebubble coated by albumin. This model based on Rayleigh-Plesset equation.Church 9 derives his UCA bubble model from Rayleigh-Plesset model thataccounted for the shell thickness and viscoelastic properties. Ho et. al. 10derives his model from Church in the limit of small shell thickness in comparisonwith the radius. Morgan 9 constructs his model from Herring equation2. Coating e ects are represented by two additional terms. The rst termis shell term incorporates the elasticity of the shell. The second shell termis a damping term because of the viscosity of the shell and is similar tothe derivation of terms by Church. Chatterjee-Sarkar 9 taken into accountviscous interfacial stresses in their model. The model considers thin-shelledagents. Marmottant 11 takes into account the physical properties of a lipidmonolayer coating on a gas microbubble in his model. Three parametersdescribe the properties of the shell: a buckling radius, the compressibilityof the shell, and a break-up shell tension. The model presents an originalnon-linear behavior at large amplitude oscillations, termed compression-only,induced by the buckling of the lipid monolayer.Due to Micro and Nano Bubble’s application in Medical Science as drugdelivery agent, Ultrasonography contrast agent etc., it is necessery to detectthem as precise as possible. Detection of cavitation bubble may be done by,which occurs on a microsecond time scale, optical probe techniques 12 orusing a photodiode 13, or, using high speed photography with a CCD camera14, 15, 16, Schlieren photography 17, 18, Interferometry 19, Shadowphotography 16, 20 etc.