Biodiversity has eaten grass. • Example: grass –àdeer-àlion Food


A short form of the phrase ‘biological diversity’, which means the
variety of life on this planet and how it interacts within habitats and
ecosystems. Biodiversity covers all plants, animals and micro-organisms on land
and in water. See also ecosystem, habitat and organism

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Preserving or protecting animals and resources such as minerals,
water and plants through planned action (such as breeding endangered species)
or non-action (such as not letting taps run unnecessarily)


Greenhouse effect

The warming of the Earth’s
atmosphere caused by increasing levels of gases, such as water vapour and
carbon dioxide. These gases absorb radiation emitted naturally from the ground,
so slowing down the loss of energy from Earth. The greenhouse effect has always
existed; without it, Earth would be too cold for plants, animals and people to
survive. But because of the increase in greenhouse gas emissions in recent
years, the greenhouse effect is a lot stronger, so leading to global warming.
See also global warming, greenhouse gases and radiation.


Kwashiorker?What is the cause of Kwashiorker.?

. A form of
malnutrition caused by protein deficiency in the diet, typically affecting
young children in the tropics and Lack of protein in food is the cause of

And why we use it?

The full form of DOTS
is Direct Observation Treatment System. The most cost-effective way to stop the
spread of TB in communities with a high incidence is by curing it.

, ecosystem, biome?

Environment: It is
defined as the sum of total of all the living and non-living things around us
influencing one another.

Ecosystem: A group of
organisms interacting among themselves and with environment for exchanging
energy and matter is known as ecosystem.

Biome:A large naturally
occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g. forest
or tundra.



. The progressive replacement of one community by
another till the development of stable community in a particular area is called
as ecological succession.


Species diversity is the diversity between different
species. The sum of varieties of all the living organisms at the species level
is known as species diversity.

 Food chain and food web with suitable

.Food Chain : A food chain is a picture or model
that shows the flow of energy from Autotrophs to a series of organisms in an
environment. A food chain only follows just one path as animals find A
hawk eats a snake, which has eaten a frog, which has eaten a grasshopper, which
has eaten grass.

Example: grass –àdeer-àlion

Food web : A food web is several food chains
connected together. A food web shows the many different paths plants and
animals are connected. eg: A hawk might also eat a mouse, a squirrel, afrog or
some other animal. The snake may eat a


species and endemic species?

Endangered and endemic species – Endemic – species
which are found only in a particular region. species is said to be threatened
or endangered when its number has been reduced to a critical level. Unless it
is protected and conserved it is in immediate danger of extinction.e, a
caterpillar, or some other animal. And so on for all the other animals in the
food chain.

and endangered species.

. Threatened and endangered species. –species is
said to be threatened or endangered when its number has been reduced to a
critical level. Unless it is protected and conserved it is in immediate danger
of extinction.


The non-living components of an ecosystem called
abiotic components.Examples: climate, soil, water, air, energy, nutrients, etc.

Disaster preperdeness includes?


Written plan


Practicing the plan

Evaluating the plan and modifying it

.Which are the nodal agencies responsible for
disaster management?

Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC

Cyclones : Indian Meteorological

Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological

Epidemics : Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare

Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry
of Environment,

Ministry of Agriculture and Animal

Chemical Disasters : Ministry of
Environment and Forests

Industrial Disasters : Ministry of

Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways

Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil

Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs

Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic

Mine Disasters : Department of Mines


 Instruments to measure earthquake?

. Earthquake magnitude
or amount of energy released is determined by the use of a seismograph.

The scale was developed by a
seismologist named Charles Richter (Richter Scale, Range 1-9).

Second type of
scale, the earthquake intensity scale measures the effects of an
earthquake where it occurs.


  Landslides are defined as the mass movement
of rock, debris or earth down a slope. They 
are influenced by geological, geo-morphological, climatic,
environmental, hydrological and seismological conditions and by biological

.Give the types of tectonics movement?

•      . Type of movement along the plate’s boundaries:

–     a) pulling away from each other (DIVERGENT)


Biological disaster?

. It defines the devastating effects that may be caused by an enormous spread
of a certain kind of living organism- that may be the spread off disease, a
virus, an epidemics, but also just a sudden growth of population of certain
kind of plants and animals e.g. Ebola , swine flu

What are the types of cyclone?

Polar cyclone,
Polar low, Sub-tropical, Tropical



)”The study of relationships between living
organisms and the environments in which they live is the science of Ecology.”



. The maximum number of individuals that can be
supported by a given environment .



•      A54. Natural resources are naturally occurring
substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified
(natural) form.

•      Therefore, Natural resources are the materials
required for sustenance of our life




Soil erosion is defined as the movement of soil
components, especially surface layer and top soil from one place to another



The energy harnessed from
the hot rocks present inside the earth is called geothermal energy.

thermal energy?

. The energy available due to the difference in
temperature of water at the surface of the oceans and at the deeper levels is
called Ocean Thermal Energy


What is Biomass energy?

Biomass is the organic matter generated by plants or
animals which include crop residues, cattle dung, manure, sewage, agricultural
waste etc


Renewable resources?s

Resources which can never
exhaust. Once exhausted, they can be replenished by recycling, replacement or
reproduction.E.G SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, Geothermal energy

resources are those resources which can restock (renew) themselves if they are
not over-harvested but used sustainably.