Before defining employee performance one
has to know what performance is, therefore performance is often defined simply
in output term that is needed for achievement of pre-decided goals. Performance
is concerned what job is done, how it is done and what has been achieved. The
Oxford English Dictionary confirms this by including the phrase ‘carrying out’
in its definition of performance: ‘The accomplishment, execution, carrying out,
working out of anything ordered or undertaken’. Mathis & Jackson (2009)
associated performance with quantity of output, quality of output, timeliness
of output, presence/attendance on the job, efficiency of the work completed and
effectiveness of work completed. Gibson and Donnelly (2006) stated that
performance is an organizational behavior which is directly related to goods
production or service delivery.
Employee performance is a term typical
to the human resource field where employee performance can refer to the ability
of employees to achieve organizational goals more effectively and efficiently.
Organizations need highly performing individuals in order to achieve their
goals, to deliver the products and services they specialized in, and to achieve
competitive advantage. Employee Performance is the successful completion of
tasks by individual or individuals, as set and measured by a supervisor or
organization, to pre-defined acceptable standards while efficiently and
effectively utilizing available resource within a changing environment Mathis
& Jackson (2009).
Employee performance plays an important
role for organizational performance. Employee performance is originally what an
employee does or does not do. Performance of employees could include: quantity
of output, timeliness of output, presence at work, cooperativeness Güngör (2011).
However, it should be noted that, the nature of performance is determined by
the organization itself. On the other hand, employees are of paramount
importance to the achievement of any organization. Thus effective leadership
enables greater participation of the entire workforce, and can also influence
both individual and organizational performance Mullins (2010). Leadership
styles are important to enhance employees’ performance. Therefore, employees’
performance has been considered as dependent variable to correlate Leadership
style in this study.
An organization is judged by its
performance. The performance management system employed in an organization
must, therefore, measure the performance of all assets including the human
ones. Armstrong (2009) defines performance management as a systematic process
for improving organizational performance by developing the performance of
individuals and teams. It is a means of getting better results by understanding
and managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals, standards
and competency requirements. Other
authors Amos and others (2004) define performance management as “the process
that begins with translating the overall strategic objectives of the
organization into clear objectives for each individual employee”. Performance
management can also be seen to incorporate all of those aspects of human
resource management that are designed to progress and/or develop the
effectiveness and efficiency of both the individual and the organization.
Performance management is concerned with: aligning individual objectives to
organizational objectives and encouraging individuals to uphold corporate core
values; enabling expectations to be defined and agreed in terms of role
responsibilities and accountabilities (expected to do), skills (expected to
have) and behaviors (expected to be); providing opportunities for individuals
to identify their own goals and develop their skills and competencies (Armstrong, 2009). T2
Performance reflects how good and how
correct an individual fulfills the assignment’s request. Based on above
definitions, performance is seen as both qualitative and quantitative result.
The success and the failure of the performance reached by an organization is
affected by the individual’s or group’s levels of performance, whose performance
is measured using instruments. The performance of the employee is measured by
performance appraisal system. Organizations use different tools and have a
number of goals for performance appraisals. The Balance Scorecard (BSC) of
Kaplan and Norton (1996) is a mechanism, which provides a holistic measure of
Furthermore, Balanced Scorecard is an
integrated approach used to strategically plan, implement, monitor and measure
the performance of all actors involved in the implementation of the goals and
objectives of the organization. BSC, as a control and performance measurement
system, ‘provides executives with a comprehensive framework that translates
organizational strategic objectives into a coherent set of performance measures’
Kaplan & Norton (1996).
it continuation of section 2.3 or a sub-section of it (2.3.1)?
you used citations at the end of a paragraph or sentence, all should be put in parenthesis.