As world. It is increasingly impossible to escape communicating


As previously mentioned, organizational communication often describes how organizations compete in the marketplace to fulfill its mission. In today’s increasingly complex world, organizations vie for the attention, admiration, affinity, alignment and allegiance of constituents of all sorts of customers, employees, investors and donors, government officials, special interest group leaders, and the public at large (Hallahan, K., Holtzhausen, D., Ruler, V. B., Vercic, D., Sriramesh, K., 2007, p. 4). While their specific activities can be conceptualized in various ways, organizations need to devise the effective instrument in which it can communicate purposefully to advance its goals.  This effective instrument according to Hallahan et al. (2007) is “a strategic communication”. Strategic communication differs from integrated communication because its focus on how the organization communicates across organizational endeavors. Hence, the emphasis is on the strategic application of communication as well as how an organization functions as a social actor to advance its mission. The rationale for strategic communication according to Hallahan et al. (2007) is that strategic communication makes sense as a unifying framework to analyze communication by organizations. For instance, one of the advantages of strategic communication is that organizations use an expanding variety of methods to influence the behaviors of their constituencies – what people know, how people feel, and the ways people act relative to the organization (Hallahan et al. 2007, p. 10). More importantly, communication strategy includes examining how the organization presents itself in society as a social actor in the creation of public culture and in the discussion of public issues. Central to strategic communication is the power of causing an effect in indirect and intangible. According to Cutlip, Center, & Brooms, 1995) “Organizations or individuals who want to alter the behavior of others have four tools at their disposal: physical force, patronage, purchase, or persuasion”. The later includes strategic communication since the main idea of communication is to encourage the acceptance of ideas. Indeed, with the proliferation of media and the disharmony of massages, they generate, it has become increasingly important for social actors and organizations to be deliberate and thoughtful in their communication to be heard (Habermas, 1979). This is especially true, as strategic organizational communication has become increasingly international and virtual in today’s postmodern world. It is increasingly impossible to escape communicating across national, cultural and linguistic borders without having a strategic communication (Hallahan et al. (2007, p. 27).


Communication Models

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A term model is a generalized description of a particular phenomenon. The models of communication are conceptual models used to deconstruct and explain the human communication process. So far, two major communication models are leading discussions within professional and academic circles. Both are applicable in terms of strategic communication (Hallahan et al. 2007, p. 20). The first, the basic and simple form of the model of communication is linear. The linear model was originally developed in the 1940s a part of a now largely forgotten research project in the United States, which investigated the ways that technical information was communicated through telecommunication system (Mattelart and Mattelart 1998, Shannon and Weaver 1955). Even though the original model was not developed for the purpose of human communication, however, it remained central today as the sources of several important communication concepts, because it has been widely adopted by communication teachers and practitioners around the world (Maier et al. 2005). Shannon and Weaver first developed the simple linear model, which describes a simple one-way communication process that involves two individuals which is a sender, and a receiver connected via a conventional telephone landline. The main goal of Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver was to ensure the maximum efficiency of any communication process in general, and telephone cables and radio waves in particular. The result proved valuable and led to the discovery of various communication channels. As can be seen, the model figure 1.1 consists of a sender or information source who constructs a message and attempts to deliver to somebody else in an organization in forms of spoken, written, image or sound. The transmitter converts the message into a signal and send it via the communication channel to the receiver. The choice of words here is normally based on that person’s chosen language and is usually influenced by many factors, such as cultural background, level of education and emotional state (Richard et al., 2013, p. 5). The receiver also called inverse transmitter then translate or convert the signals back into a message and hand it to over to the destination. The destination is the final stage where the person to which the transmitted message sent to is placed. Here again, the transmitted message is decoded and understood by the brain of the person at receiving end, depending on the factors including the receiver’s language, cultural background, level of education and emotional state (Richard et al. (2013, p. 5). Once the conversation process is complete, the message is considered as having been received and the process retreats itself with the positions of sender and receiver reversed.