As World Bank, Iraq’s human development indicators are among

As was affirmed by the National Intelligence Estimate in 2007, Iraqi political leaders “remain unable to govern effectively”, and the Iraqi Government “will become more precarious over the next 12 months.” To this day, many are still dissatisfied with the governance by the Iraqi government, which is another key destabilizing factor.
To begin with, there is a lack of services and infrastructure. According to the World Bank, Iraq’s human development indicators are among the lowest in the Middle East due to successive wars and sanctions. Many Iraqis are unable to access basic staples, such as potable water and electricity. Access to health care is also limited, given the shortage of hospitals and other health-care facilities. The education system, having suffered from under-funding by the Hussein regime, continue to struggle in its reform because of poor security conditions and a lack of regulatory guarantee for the accountability for teachers and administrators.
Corruption prevails at all levels of the Iraqi government. Government officials, including some of the senior names in the country, are reported to receive briberies openly, and may even be “seen as weak if youthey don’t steal.” https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/19/post-war-iraq-corruption-oil-prices-revenues The problem is even more severe with militias. Huge sums in salaries are paid to nonexistent “ghost soldiers” every year, which are eventually collected by officers. In other cases, soldiers bribe officers with part of their salaries to be exempt from duty. Several anti-corruption drives have been launched, but little progress has been made. With global oil prices remaining at historic lows, corruption continues to severely jeopardize the country’s economy and governance.
Discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities, such as the Yazidis, Christians and Turkmen, exists in the government. Minorities are frequently targeted by ISIL and its allies, and virtually defenseless without their own militias or tribal protection structures. However, the government has been lacking in response to attacks upon them. Displaced minorities may also face unjust treatment in areas they are displaced to, from being sent to holding sites to being barred from entrance. Puttick, M. (2014). From Crisis to Catastrophe: the situation of minorities in Iraq. Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved from: http://www.minorityrights.org/[email protected]=1468