Around the beginning of the 20th century, the Wright brothers invented a revolutionary method of transportation as a result of many trial and errors. The method of transportation was known as an airplane.However, due to the lack of experience that the human species have during the time, the safety concerns of high attitude was unknown and the ways of preventing effects like attitude sickness during the flight was unclear.
Through this problem, the confidence that people had on air travel was not high and it could not be utilised with a good efficiency.However, through the application of the Gas Laws, these problems can be solved for a safer and better use for humans.. According to Gay-Lussac’s Law, it states that the pressure of a given amount of gas held at constant volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature.P TWhen the airplane reaches a high attitude, it is know that the temperature drops down the further up the atmosphere due to the slowing down of the particles. Therefore, when the temperature of the surrounding of the airplane is cold, the pressure of the air outside of the airplane would be low. When a human being goes from a high pressure zone towards a low pressure zone, the remnant air that the person breathed into their body would diffuse into the surrounding.
This would result in the expansion of air in the body which could cause fatal health problems like Hypoxia and Tissue Necrosis. After hypoxia, changes in gas volume is the most important physiological consequence of flight. According to Boyle’s law, for a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional.When the pressure is low, the air would therefore expand(Increased volume).Many equipment and body parts would be affected by this change in air volume suchair in IV lines, pressure infuser bags, air splints, vacuum splints, vacuum mattresses, pneumatic anti-shock garments (PASG), and body organs.The increased volume of air disrupts the internal structure of the equipment or body organs.
As a result, travel to high altitudes through airplanes are not realistic during the time.Dalton’s Law states that the total pressure of a mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each gas in the mixture where P = P1 + P2 + P3.It is known that at Sea Level the Standard Atmospheric Pressure is 760 torr, and that Air is comprised of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% other gases.The fractional pressure that each gas has is considered as it’s “partial pressure.” At sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen is around 160 mmHg, which is 21% of the total atmospheric pressure of 760 mm/Hg. As the atmospheric pressure decreases with an increase in altitude, the partial pressure of oxygen will also decrease, even the ratio of oxygen in air stays constant.
As the atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude explained with Gay-Lussac’s Law, the partial pressure of oxygen also decreases. The decreased partial pressure makes it harder for the oxygen molecules to cross the alveolar membrane in human bodies and get into the bloodstream. Although The percentage of molecules of oxygen in the air does not change with altitude, According to Boyle’s law,When the pressure is low, the volume would increase where the oxygen molecules would be more spread out, so fewer are inhaled with each breath where this is compounded by the effect of Gay-Lussac’s Law.This would result in air travel being an unrealistic dangerous method of transportation. Understanding the effect of the changing environment by the aircraft and the equipment inside it is essential in order to reduce the effects of changing environment on the passenger and the equipment needed in order to solve the problem above, the same Gas Laws must be applied.The cabins inside the aircraft would have the air pressure increased while being airtight towards the outside air, results in no exchange between the outside atmosphere and the air inside.This would solve the problem mentioned previously from the temperature and the pressure.Also, according to Boyle’s law and Dalton’s law, the increased pressure would ensure that the oxygen concentration would be sufficient for human needs as the partial pressure of oxygen would also increase as a result of the increased pressure.With this method, some limitations still apply such as the increased weight of the aircraft, complicated monitoring of gases is required and possible decompression hazards during an accident could occur.However, compared to the circumstances before the use of air cabins with compression, it was a significant improvement.Through this, the transport of personnel was proved to be possible through air transport and the ability to transport overseas was more convenient.The disadvantages that was caused through this method is not a very significant factor only affecting the costs of travel while in contrast, it allowed the utilization of air travel as a realistic way of travel.( Mention scientific reasoning)