Amina Coleman Ms.McNamaraEnglish III20 December 2017Title of Your Report”When men are oppressed, it’s a tragedy. When women are oppressed it’s a tradition.” Oppression is when an unfair use of authority, law, or physical forces is used to prevent others from being equal. Oppression means to keep someone down in a social sense. Women have been wrongfully held back from achieving equality in many societies. Women are treated like children or property in many cultures. They are oppressed because of the man’s desire for power and control. They are controlled by their fathers and husbands. The women’s status as being lesser than man is used to justify a man’s power over women. The oppression of women in Chad, Sudan, and Nepal undermines women’s rights by refusal of education, the use of rape as a weapon and forced marriage. Women in Asia, Africa and the Middles East are unable to hold any influence over politics, culture, and religion. Their not able to own property or inherit land or wealth. There has been attempts to explain women’s oppression in biological terms. The sociologist Stephen Goldberg proposed that men are naturally more competitive than women because of their high level of testosterone. This makes them hostile, power- hunger, and dominate which leaves women in submissive roles. (Taylor,Steve. “Psychology Today”. Why Men Oppress Women. 30 Aug. 2012 ) This theory does not excuse the harsh treatment of women. An unproven scientific theory should not be the reason why women are refusal a central role in society. Chad Even though the government of Chad made education at a primary level free, the women in Chad receive very little education compared to the boys in Chad. Chad is ranked as the worst country in the world for gender-driven divergence in education attainment. Only around three- quarters of children are enrolled in school. Just about 28% of women in Chad can read, 55% of school-aged school girls are enrolled in primary school. (“Children and Women in Chad .” UNICEF Chad. ) In Chads villages, men are more appreciable than women. They often take on the leadership roles as teachers, and doctors. Communities are ran by men and they are the breadwinners of their families. So culturally it is less important for girls to receive an education, so girls are kept at home. In Chad the women’s place is in the home. They go to find water, cook meals and look after their husbands and children. Then they look after their vegetable plots. When they returned back from the fields, they resume their domestic chores. Girls are brought up from a young age to perform household duties. The girls who are fortunate to receive a primary school education dropout in secondary school because of child marriage and forced marriages. Child marriages and forced marriage that involve a dowery are widely practiced, meaning fewer girls enrol in secondary school . This means only 40% of young women (15-24) can read and write.(“Education and Jobs;Primary schooling.” Our Africa. < http://www.our-africa.org>) The burden of societal and familial pressures led to high dropout rates that are not seen with boys. Another factor participates in women not receiving an education, Chad suffers from a severe shortage of teachers. Classrooms are often crowed, occasionally hold 50 to 100 pupils for lessons. Schools are particularly lacking in staff, teaching materials and facilities. Most do not have service such as running water and electricity. A lack of secondary schools means many children do not finish their education. Women in chad should have the same entitlement to education as men because they should not be subservient to men. Their only responsibility should not be household chores, it is important for all people to be educated.SudanRape and sexual violence has been used as a weapon of war in the Sudan. The of violence against women in Sudan is double the global average.(Mednick,Sam “Violence against women in South Sudan is occurring at twice the global average rate”.Independent.29 Nov,2017.< http://www.independent.co.uk> Violence against women with abuse started in their youth years and continued throughout the women’s lives. As the nation advantaged toward the fifth year of civil war, rape was often used as a weapon and opportunistically to intimidate,punish and abuse civilians by both the government and opposition forces.Women were raped in their homes, at work,along the roadside,even in the places they seek refuse. Women were abducted and sexually enslaved. Up to 65 percent of women have experienced sexual or physical violence. (Stone,Lydia. “A continuum of suffering: violence against women and girls in the South Sudan conflict.”Humanitarian Practice Network. Jan.2017 ) Half of the women who experience violence do not tell anyone or seek medical attention because of the culture of shame, it is so intense that women fear reporting the crime because it could lead to further repercussions. The Sudan government has accepted the violence against women. Another form of violence against women is marriage abuse. Due to the husbands dominate role the women have no choices in decision making. Women are not given access to education and are not allowed to make any decisions about their health needs and sexual practice is determined by the men. The last two forms of violence against women is parental and governmental. The parents force their young girls that are not fully developed into arranged marriages. The practice of paying for a bride encounges the treatment of women as chattel. Women believe that it is justified for a man to hit a woman if she goes without telling him where shes going ,if she neglects her children or if she argues with him. The young girls are put in this positions because they are considered property and their parents married them off at an early age because they are profitable. This is how their government has been ran for years. The government do not care about the treatment of women, women are treated like second class citizens or not citizens at all. The government tries to silence female human rights defenders in the country. NepalChild marriage has been illegal in Nepal since 1963. Arranging child marriage or marrying a child is punishable by law. The laws are strong on paper, but are not properly enforced and child marriage rates are still high. Damaging social norms make girls less valued than boys in Nepal society. Thirty seven percent of girls in Nepal marry before 18 and 10 percent married by age 15. (“Our Time to Sing and Play.” Child Marriage in Nepal. 8 Sept,2016.)Some families marry girls off at the age of one and a half years old. Marriages are driven by living situations. Some girls elope before they are forced into a marriage. Some look for husbands who can feed them. Sexually active girls who become pregnant rush into marriages as they see it is the only option to save their future. Early childbearing is dangerous for both the mother and child. Some girls suffer fatal health consequences. Women are forced into dark barns,if they survive childbirth, they must wait 13 days before they can leave.Some girls baby dies and sometimes they die.( Trondheim,Oscar The 10 Worst Countries for women.). Poverty is a cause of child marriage to increase a family’s income parents sell their daughters for a dowry. Child marriages only perpetuates the cycle of poverty. Studies have shown that girls with little education are six times more likely to be married early before those who attended secondary school. When parents force their daughters to marry young, some have to dropout of school, and face domestic violence. Girls who are not married by their teens age years can sold to traffickers. Families marry off the daughters because they felt pressure within their community. When girls are married at a young age their futures are taken away from them. They are uneducated,living in poverty all because their families the decides to marry them off for money. They have no say in when they will get married or about who they will marry. Even though child marriages are illegal, girls are still being married off. Just because girls are not valued does not mean that you can just marry them off without considering how they feel. Programs to help Even though there are programs designed to help women in this situations, there is not enough funding given to the programs. The Transitional Education Plan in Chad focuses on the primary school education In 2011,two out of three children were either enroll but do not complete the primary school education or never enroll.Since the program was funded access to primary school education has improved by 85% but the program was only from 2013-2015 it needed an extension for 2017. (“Education in Chad.”Global Partnership for Education< www.globalpartnership.org> )In the Sudan UNDP is working in partnership with the Government of South Sudan, the Global Fund and the International Organization for Migration to address gender-based violence as part of mental health and psychosocial support programmes, particularly for women are displaced by three-year of conflict. This is particularly important as violence can affect women’s physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health. This program was created to encourage more people to stand up to violence against women. Rising awareness challenges the traditional beliefs of women.(“Vulnerable to violence: Empowering women in South Sudan.”United Nations Development Programme.22 Jun,2017. Also a program was just funded by the Global Partnership for Education and USAID to ensure that girls access to quality education. Their goal is to strengthen the Sudanese education in the terms of equality for all children. The main challenge for them is the large percent of girls are out of school. The World Bank estimates that only seven girls to every ten boys attend primary education,while five girls to every ten boys are enrolled in secondary school. The government, the UNFPA and UNICEF of Nepal has been developing, strategies to end child marriage. But the launch has delayed because of the earthquake in 2015 and it is unclear of when it will be implemented. ( “6 facts you need to know about child marriage in Nepal”.Girls not Brides.8 Sep,2016.< www.girlsnotbrides.org> ) CONCLUSION “Freedom cannot be achieved unless the women have been emancipated from all forms of oppression.” Women in developing countries are treated like second class citizens. They can not own land, inherit wealth, they have no control over their lives. They are controlled by the fathers and husbands. This has been going on for years and it is oppression. Women are are being held back from achieving equality in society . They are viewed as being less than men. Women in Chad are denied the right to education because people believe that a woman’s place is in the home.Women face at serious disadvantages in education,Chad is the worst indicators for girls education. The violence against women in the Sudan makes it a dangerous place to be a woman. Approximately one in every three women has intercounter with violence and yet the fight to end violence against women is overlooked. In Nepal girls are forced into child marriages by their parents. Even though its illegal for children to be married it still happens . When they give birth complications happen because their bodies are undeveloped. There needs to be a change. It is not right for these counties to treat women like that are noting. Because they are worth something, they deserve to be love.Bibliography “Children and Women in Chad .” UNICEF Chad. “Education and Jobs;Primary schooling.” Our Africa. < http://www.our-africa.org> “Education in Chad.”Global Partnership for Education< www.globalpartnership.org> Farr, Kathryn.”No escape:sexual violence against women and girls in Central and Eastern Africa and armed conflicts.” Deportate, Esuli, Profughi. 2010.17,Sep.2017.Marcus,Rachel.Violence against women in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Egypt, Sudan, Senegal and Yemen. 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