All property of dye. Slides were kept in 95%

All the 100 swaps samples were collected from deferent breeds from Taif and Jeddah City, and then were cultivated on three media (blood media, chocolate media and MacConkey media.

Samples preparation: –

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Using the swap on the surface of the camel udder from each side (anterior, posterior, lateral and medial). Each swab from one side only. After that return, the swab to the tube. The tube contains a preserve media.


Following media with composition were used for the experiments. From agar plates, colonies are transferred to the plate for 24 hrs. Incubation and isolated genomic DNA. Similarly, from swap inoculated on the agar plate and to isolate the pure colony and again this was inoculated in broth to isolate the genomic DNA.


Microbiology tests:

Gram staining:

Gram stain allows the separation of all bacteria in the two groups, those which retain the first dye (gram positive) and those that take the color counter stain(gram-negative). Gram staining was performed using the standard protocol. Briefly, bacterial culture was smeared on a slide and covered with crystal violet for 1min. Excess stain was removed by washing with water, followed by addition of iodine solution, which act as a mordant to improve the staining property of dye. Slides were kept in 95% ethanol for 1 min. Gram positive bacteria would retain the violet color while Gram negative bacteria would lose violet color after alcohol treatment. Slides were rinsed with water and further stained with 1% safranin for 1min to visualize Gram negative bacteria. (, 2013).


Catalase Test:

This test demonstrates the nearness of catalase, a protein that catalyzes the release of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It is utilized to alter those microorganisms that create a catalyst catalase, for example, staphylococci, from non-catalase delivering microscopic organisms, for instance, streptococci. More often than not, 3% H2O2 is utilized for the standard culture while 15% H2O2 is utilized for discovery of catalase in anaerobes.

Principle of Catalase Test:

The catalyst catalase intervenes the crumple of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. The nearness of the chemical in a bacterial detach is unmistakable when a little inoculum is brought into hydrogen peroxide, and the