Adiponectin referred to by the ADIPOQ gene and is

(additionally known as apM1, AdipoQ ,GBP-28and Acrp30) is a protein hormone
which controls glucose levels and also unsaturated fat breakdown. In humans it
is referred to by the ADIPOQ gene and is formed in fat tissue. Adiponectin is a
244-amino-acid long polypeptide (protein). There are four separate areas of
adiponectin. The first is a short signal sequence that targets the hormone for release
outside the cell; next is a short area that differs between species; the third
is a 65-amino acid region with resemblance to collagenous proteins; the last is
a globular domain. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that regulates various
metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and unsaturated fat
oxidation. Adiponectin is released from fat tissue (and furthermore from the
placenta during pregnancy) into the circulatory system and is extremely rich in
plasma compared to numerous hormones. Many studies have observed adiponectin to
be contrarily related with body mass index in patient populations. Adiponectin concentrations
rise during caloric limitation in animals and humans, for instance, in patients
with anorexia nervosa.

Deficiency arises when there is low concentration of blood serum adiponectin
levels. This happens due downregulation of adiponectin and the reason for this
is not yet properly explained. The gene in affected people is usually found to
be localised to chromosome 3q27, a region known to affect the susceptibility to
Type 2 Diabetes and obesity.The proper system of regulation of adiponectin is undetermined,
however it could be managed by post-translational mechanisms in cells. A low
level of adiponectin is an autonomous risk factor for giving rise to: Metabolic
disorder , Diabetes mellitus . Lower levels of adiponectin are related with
ADHD in grown-ups. Adiponectin levels were observed to be elevated in
rheumatoid joint inflammation patients reacting to DMARDs or TNF inhibitor
treatment. Exercise induced production of adiponectin increased hippocampal
development and prompted upper antidepressive symptoms in mice.

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The most commonly
used drugs used to treat adiponectin deficiency are Thiazolidinedione, which
are a class of heterocyclic compounds. Most of the drugs that belong to this
class have been discontinued or banned due to their adverse side-effects that
do more harm than good. Rivoglitazone belongs to this class of
thiazolidinedione and is currently undergoing research for use in the treatment
of type 2 diabetes. If allowed by the FDA for commercialisation, it has the
potential of becoming a potent drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,
obesity and other adiponectin deficiency related disorders.



The purpose of
this research paper is to study the effect of gene mutations in the adipoq gene
and hence its effect in the normal functioning of the body, particularly
obesity and type 2 diabetes. Out of the several protein constituents in the
adipoq gene, the one which has been selected for further study is the R112C
amino acid substitution. A successful study of mutation in the above stated
gene will help us design drugs that could have therapeutic effects.

Another purpose of
this study is to evaluate the functioning of the drug Rivoglitazone against adiponectin deficiency, by comparing its function
to that of another known drug, Darglitazone , belonging to the same family. Apart
from Rivoglitazone, another marine component derived drug is to be studied and


Expected Outcome


The expected
outcome of this study is to analyse and study the effects of gene mutation in
the adipoq gene and its consequent effect on the normal functioning of the
human body. The efficacy of the drug Rivoglitazone
and the marine derived drug is also expected to be determined.