I extend my gratitude to everyone who has
helped me to achieve the completion of this dissertation. I have been helped and encouraged endlessly
by many people who have seen this project through from an idea to a finished
piece of work. Without the inspiration, intelligence and support of my
supervisor, I would have had a far more arduous and less enjoyable task. In
addition, for their patience and support during many long hours in the library
at the London South Bank University, I thank all the staff. And, of course, I
must thank my family for their constant support, encouragement and love,
without which I would not have been able to undertake the study and writing of
Building information modelling (BIM) is an
emergent technology whose primary purpose is to improve the design,
construction, operation and maintenance of buildings. There is widespread
variation with respect to actual benefit comprehension of BIM. Therefore,
understanding the reasons behind BIM implementation within an organisation is
very important to improve its overall success rate. Considering the above
evidences, the primary research question proposed in this research is:
If BIM is the solution, what is the
The study examined the situation and
effectiveness of BIM using a questionnaire that was designed just for it. The
main purpose of this questionnaire will be to. The study results show that BIM
adoption is linked to the needs of the project. While some projects use BIM to
visualise and strategically manage the entire project, some others use it only
for design or implementation. Additionally, BIM can be relevant at different
stages (pre and post-construction). The need for BIM is to reduce cost and time
of construction and facilities management through overcoming specific problems.
For instance, costs linked to redesign or rework can be overcome by
collaborative sharing of information. Similarly, quality linked problems can be
overcome by consistent and real-time monitoring. Finally, the use of BIM can
help overcome problems linked to lack of visualisation and discontent across
the fragmented team within the construction industry.
Researchers identify building information
modelling (BIM) as an emergent technology whose primary purpose is to improve
the design, construction, operation and maintenance of buildings
(Becerik-Gerber et al., 2012; Rowlinson et al., 2010). According to Eadie et
al. (2013), there are reported evidences of BIM implementation and its
technologies bringing about a reduction in overall costs of construction,
improving focus on the quality of information as well as management of project
costs and schedule. As Eastman, et al. (2011) rightly argued, the use of BIM
within the construction industry can help create a stepping stone towards
integrating operations across the lifecycle of the construction project.
However, as Howard and Bjork (2008) contend, despite the growing evidence of
BIM implementation and its benefits, the primary reasons which govern the
implementation of BIM within an organisation are yet to be positively
identified. Bryde et al. (2013) further contend that the benefits of BIM are
dynamic, varied and are unique to every project or organisation where it is
adopted. Practical evidences support these findings. For example, the NBS
National BIM Survey (2015) identified that BIM was a de facto standard for the
design process. The survey identified that 48% of all construction and
facilities management organisations had adopted BIM, as compared to 21% in
2011. The report also indicated that despite widespread adoption, 67% of
respondents still believe that the industry is not clear enough on what BIM is
and only 25% trusted the reasons that were given for adoption. The report
concluded with the view that most organisations were adopting BIM as a de facto
standard, which was a result of government intervention and promotion. All
organisations indicate that adopting BIM requires a change in workflow, practice
and procedure. It is also evident that most organisations were moving towards
the Level 2 mandated adoption without fully realising its potential benefits.
Therefore, understanding the reasons behind BIM implementation within an
organisation is very important to improve its overall success rate. Considering
the above evidences, the primary research question proposed in this research.
Dissertation Proposal Topic
If BIM is the solution, what is
Rationale for BIM
Evidences in research indicate that there
can be some irregularities associated with the design provided during the bid
phase when compared to the construction phase (Keraousou et al., 2015; Vass et
al., 2015). Won et al. (2016) further argue that this can be predominantly
attributed to lack of consideration of stage-wise construction changes and the
use of a 2D representation. The problem can be solved by adopting BIM during
the design phase, as it helps improve overall visualisation. Hallberg and
Tarandi (2011) contend that BIM is most effective as a three-dimensional visual
representation which provides contractors with images, walk-through and, more
importantly, a stage-wise sequencing of the construction process. The first
challenge that BIM can help reduce is design accuracy, which it can improve.
Bryde et al. (2013), in their assessment of
project management delays in construction projects, highlight that lack of
coordination is a key problem which causes delays. Giel and Issa (2011) further
contend that given the fragmentation of the construction industry and the
complexities in the stakeholder relationships, construction delays are often
due to a lack of immediate information sharing and a lack of coordination.
Eastman et al. (2011) contend that the implementation of BIM can help reduce
this delay. Through the BIM adoption process, it is possible to ensure that the
owner, architect, engineer, field supervisor and construction manager can
coordinate with each other from the initial stages of the project. Jung and Joo
(2011) support this argument by indicating that such coordination will ensure
that there is avoidance of design errors or construction errors by enhancing
real-time assessment. This can in turn provide space and time for contractors
and construction managers to understand each other and enhance 3D coordination.
Therefore, the second challenge that BIM can help address is information
sharing, where it can increase collaboration and reduce costs of time delay
during the construction phase of the project.
The third factor which governs BIM
implementation is its ability to increase the speed of design or construction.
Underwood and Isikdag (2010) report that the adoption of BIM can help in the
quick completion of construction and non-construction linked processes. For
example, BIM implementation can help in design development and pre-planning of
projects, as well as in the crashing of the project to reduce time. This can
also be linked to challenges of operational simulation. Yan et al. (2011)
reports that BIM adoption can help in animating the building model to display
activities that take place within the building. This can help improve speed of
approval and helps designers and construction managers visualise operational
functions and associated design and construction challenges.
Finally, the BIM adoption can help in facilities management. According
to Nicole and Cruz (2011), in industrialised countries, there is a decrease in
new construction and an increase in facilities management. Considering this
view, Akbarnezhad et al. (2012) argues that understanding the role of BIM in
the end-of-life stages of the project, including deconstruction, refurbishment
and maintenance is key. Nepal et al. (2008) argue that the common challenges
faced during facilities management are high resource consumption and
maintenance time. BIM has been proven to address this challenge by increasing
savings and reducing overall consumption of resources (Leite et al., 2011).
However, there have been
problems that are present with the BIM system. In the report that was presented
by Hardi and Pittard (2015), it was seen that BIM implementation requires a
move away from the traditional workflow towards sharing and effectively working
on providing a common information pool. BIM aims to change the emphasis by
making the model the primary tool for information. For which an increasing
number of documents or reports that contain plans, schedules and bills of quantities
may be required due to its primary asset being information (Hardi and Pittard,
The main aim of dissertation is
to identify the problems that are associated with BIM and how its
implementation is going to affect the future of the construction industry.
To understand the problems of
To summarise, analyse and
evaluate the data collected in order analyse how the use of BIM will affect the
future of the construction industry.
To understand the importance of
BIM and the use of BIM.
To research into whether BIM
will help aid the construction industry.
To research into whether BIM
will have effect of construction industry.
To prepare a questionnaire to
collect data from practitioners within the construction industry in the UK
regarding whether the introduction of BIM will affect the future of the
To understand what BIM is and
analyse the data collected from these questionnaires by comparing the
theoretical conclusions with the empirical research findings to draw
1.3. WHO IS USING BIM?
NBS surveyed shows that about 6,500
construction professionals in the UK with over 6% response rate (Thenbs, 2012).
Those asked said they believed a quarter of the construction industry will be
using BIM for most of, many of their projects in one year’s time and a half
will use BIM for most of, many of the projects in three years’ time.
1.4. DO COMPANIES HAVE THE EXPERTISE