Abstract Total n (%) P value Gender Male Female

Abstract

Table 1. Comparison of demographic data between ACH and KAUH 
ACH
n (%) KAUH
n (%) Total 
n (%) P value 
Gender 
Male 
Female 
36 (90)
4 (10)
33 (83)
7 (17)
69 (86)
11 (14)
0.33
Age
20-25 3  (8) 1 (3) 4 (5)
<0.001 25-30 23 (58) 9 (23) 32 (40) >30 14 (35) 30 (75) 44 (55)
Education 
Physician 4 (10) 5 (13) 9 (11)
<0.001 Technical diploma 12 (30) 29 (73) 41 (51) Baccalaureate nursing 24 (60) 6 (15) 30 (38) Experience  <1 year 2 (5) 0 (0) 2 (2.5) <0.001 1–5 16 (40) 4 (10) 20 (25) 6–10 14 (35) 14 (35) 28 (35) >20 8 (20) 22 (55) 30 (38)

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Table 2. Comparison of knowledge between (ACH) and (KAUH) 
MCH, n = 40
 (%) KAUH, n = 40
  (%) Total, n = 80
    (%) P value
Oral vs nasal route for endotracheal intubation
Oral intubation is recommended 32 (80) 36 (90) 68 (85)
0.20
Both routs of intubation can be recommended 8 (20) 4 (10) 12 (15)
Frequency of ventilator circuit change 
It is recommended to change circuits every 48 hours (or when clinically indicated)
23 (75.5)
8 (20)
31 (39)

0.001
It is recommended to change circuits every week (or when clinically indicated)
7 (18)
8 (20)
15 (19)
It is recommended to change circuits for every new patient  (or when clinically indicated) 
10 (25)
24 (60)
34 (42)
Type of air way humidifier 
Heated humidifiers are recommended 1 (2.5) 0 (0) 1 (1.25)

0.022
Heat and moisture exchangers are recommended 35 (88) 26 (65) 61 (76)
Both types of humidifiers can be recommended 4 (10) 12 (30) 16 (20)
I don’t know 0 (0) 2 (5) 2 (2.5)
Frequency of humidifier changes 
It is recommended to change humidifiers every 48 hours (or when clinically indicated 17 (43) 31 (77) 48 (60)

0.002
It is recommended to change humidifiers every 72 hours (or when clinically indicated 12 (30) 4 (10) 16 (20)
It is recommended to change humidifiers every week  (or when clinically indicated 10 (25) 2 (5) 12 (15)
I don’t know 1 (2.5) 3 (7.5) 4 (5)
Open vs. closed suction system 
Open section system are recommended 3 (7.5) 5 (13) 8 (10)
0.165
Closed section system are recommended 25 (63) 16 (40) 41 (51)
Both system are recommended 12 (30) 18 (45) 30 (38)
I don’t know 0 (0) 1 (2.5) 1 (2.5)

Table 2. Comparison of knowledge between (ACH) and (KAUH) 
MCH, n = 40 
 (%) KAUH, n = 40
  (%) Total, n = 80
    (%) P value
Frequency of change in suction systems 
Daily changes are recommended (or when clinically indicated) 37 (93) 32 (80) 69 (86)
0.11
Weekly changes are recommended (or when clinically indicated) 2 (5) 1 (2.5) 3 (4)
It is recommended to change systems for every new patient (or when clinically indicated) 1 (2.5) 6 (15) 7 (9)
I don’t know 0 (0) 1 (2.5) 1(1.3)
Kinetic vs standard beds 
Kinetic beds increase the risk for VAP 1 (2.5) 1 (2.5) 2 (3)
<0.001 Kinetic beds decrease the risk for VAP 35 (88) 11 (28) 46 (58) The use of kinetic beds dos not influence the risk for VAP 5 (5) 1 (2.5) 3 (4) I don't know 2 (5) 27 (68) 29 (36) Patient positioning  Supine positioning is recommended 1 (2.5) 2 (5) 3 (4) 0.619 Semi recumbent positioning is recommended 37 (92.5) 35 (87.5) 72 (90) The position of the patient does not influence the risk for VAP 2 (5) 2 (5) 4 (5) I don't know 0 (0) 1 (2.5) 1 (1.3) Table 3: Comparison practice between (ACH) and (KAUH)  MCH, N=40          NO (%) KAUH, N=40      NO (%) Total  , N=80    NO (%) P value Infection control measures 1- Wash hands before and after patients 35 (88) 19 (48) 54 (67) <0.001 2- Wash hands between patients. 40 (100) 18 (45) 58 (73) <0.001 3- Chang gloves between patients. 40 (100) 37 (93) 77 (96.3) 0.03 4- Use sterile ambubag disinfect it before use 40 (100) 39 (98) 79 (99) 0.23 5- Change ambubag between patients 40 (100) 39 (98) 79 (99) 0.23 Patient positioning: 1-Maintain continuously patients position in (30-45) if not contraindicated 40 (100) 34 (85) 74 (93) 0.03 Ventilator care measures: 1- Drain discards periodically any condensate that collects in the tubing of a mechanical ventilator 40 (100) 34 (85) 74 (93) 0.03 2- Humidify respiratory circuit using humidity and heat exchange filter. 40 (100) 39 (98) 79 (99) 0.23 3- Replace humidifiers 40 (100) 38 (95) 78 (98) 0.09 5- Change a heat moisture exchanger that is used by patient when it becomes visibly soiled. 40 (100) 36 (90) 76 (95) 0.01 End tracheal suctioning care: 1- Maintain adequate pressure in endotracheal tube cuff. 40 (100) 38 (95) 78 (98) 0.09 2- Wear clean gloves with closed suctioning 40 (100) 39 (98) 79 (99) 0.23 3- Wear sterile gloves with an open suction system. 39 (98) 29 (72) 68 (85) <0.001 4- Using sterile technique when applying tracheal suctioning 40 (100) 37 (93) 77 (96) 0.03 5- Use sterile suction equipment. 40 (100) 38 (95) 78 (98) 0.09 6- Replacement of suction system 40 (100) 39 (98) 79 (99) 0.23 7- Replace suction tube 40 (100) 39 (98) 39 (97) 0.23 8- Use saline distilled water prior to suctioning 40 (100) 29 (73) 69 (86) <0.001 9 - Replace the solution used for suction 40 (100) 23 (58) 63 (79) <0.001 10 - Continuous aspiration of sub glottis secretions if ventilator more than 48 hours. 40 (100) 8 (20) 43 (54) <0.001 Oral care  1-Perform oral hygiene with antiseptic mouth wash. 39 (98) 36 (90) 75 (94) 0.15 2- Use topical antimicrobial agents for oral decontamination regularly 35 (87.5) 34 (85) 69 (86) 0.74 Peptic ulcer prophylaxis  1- Check the gastric residual volume (GRV) every 4 to 6. 38 (95) 15 (37.5) 53 (66.3) <0.001 2- Administer intermittent rather than continuous enteral feeding. 35 (88) 16 (40) 51 (64) <0.001 3- Perform routine acidification of gastric feeding. 40 (100) 37 (93) 77 (96.3) 0.03 Extubation and weaning trials: 1- Interruption in sedation utilizing sedation scale 40 (100) 38 (95) 78 (97.5) 0.09 2- Perform daily assessment of readiness to wean and extubate 40 (100) 39 (97.5) 79 (99) 0.23 DVT prophylaxis Apply anti-embolic stockings or sequential compression 40 (100) 35 (87.5) 75 (94) 0.007