ABSTRACT temporal diversity due to channel variability. Our end-to-end

ABSTRACTWeconsider the problem of resource allocation and control of multihop networks inwhich multiple source-destination pairs communicate confidential messages, tobe kept confidential from the intermediate nodes. We pose the problem as thatof network utility maximization, into which confidentiality is incorporated asan additional quality of service constraint. We develop a simple, and yetprovably optimal dynamic control algorithm that combines flow control, routingand end-to-end secrecy-encoding. In order to achieve confidentiality, ourscheme exploits multipath diversity and temporal diversity due to channelvariability. Our end-to-end dynamic encoding scheme encodes confidentialmessages across multiple packets, to be combined at the ultimate destinationfor recovery.

We first develop an optimal dynamic policy for the case in whichthe number of blocks across which secrecy encoding is performed isasymptotically large. Next, we consider encoding across a finite number ofpackets, which eliminates the possibility of achieving perfect secrecy. Forthis case, we develop a dynamic policy to choose the encoding rates for eachmessage, based on the instantaneous channel state information, queue states andsecrecy outage requirements.

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In this paper, we propose ascalable authentication scheme based on hybrid key exchange algorithm. Whileenabling intermediate nodes authentication, our proposed scheme allows any nodeto transmit an unlimited number of messages without suffering the thresholdproblem. In addition, our scheme can also provide message source privacy andact as resistance to sender and receivers. Both theoretical analysis andsimulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme is more efficient thanthe ECC overhead under comparable security levels while providing messagesource privacy.

Keywords:MutualNodes, Noise bit, Diamond Network, Multi-Hop Network.INTRODUCTIONMessage authentication is one of the most effectiveways to thwart unauthorized and corrupted messages from being forwarded inwireless sensor networks (WSNs). For this reason, many message authenticationschemes have been developed, based on either symmetric-key cryptosystems orpublic-key cryptosystems.

Most of them, however, have the limitations of highcomputational and communication overhead in addition to lack of scalability andresilience to node compromise attacks. To address these issues, a polynomial-basedscheme was recently introduced. However, this scheme and its extensions allhave the weakness of a built-in threshold determined by the degree of thepolynomial: when the number of messages transmitted is larger than thisthreshold, the adversary can fully recover the polynomial. In this paper, wepropose a scalable authentication scheme based on hybrid key exchangealgorithm. While enabling intermediate nodes authentication, our proposedscheme allows any node to transmit an unlimited number of messages withoutsuffering the threshold problem.

In addition, our scheme can also providemessage source privacy and act as resistance to sender and receivers. Boththeoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that our proposedscheme is more efficient than the ECC overhead under comparable security levelswhile providing message source privacy.In multi hop packet transmissionConfidentiality of intermediate nodes for communication is to be considered, sothat data sent to a node is not shared by any other node.

Also in whichconfidentiality is not necessary, it may be not secure to consider that nodeswill always remain uncompromised.Keeping different node’s informationconfidential can be viewed as a precaution to avoid a captured node from accessinginformation from other uncaptured nodes. In a multi hop network, as datapackets are transferred, intermediate nodes get all or part of the data throughdirectly forwarding data packets the transmission of nearby nodes, whentransferring confidential messages.

In this paper, I build efficient algorithmsfor confidential multiuser communication over multi hop wireless networkswithout the source-destination pairs having to share any secret key a priori.The metric I use to measure the confidentiality is the mutual informationleakage rate to the relay nodes, i.e., the equivocation rate. I require thisrate to be arbitrarily small with high probability and impose this in theresource allocation problem via an additional constraint. To provide the basicintuition behind our approaches and how the source nodes can achieveconfidentiality from the relay nodes, consider the following simple example ofa diamond network given in Let the source node have a single bitof informationto be transmitted to the destination node, with perfect secrecy (with 0 mutualinformation leaked) from there lay node.

The issue is that the source cannottransmit this bit directly over one of the possible paths, violating theconfidentiality constraint. This problem can be solved by adding randomnoise(i.e., randomization bit) on the information bit, and sending the noiseand the noise corrupted message over different paths, which can then becombined at the destination. Note that with the information available to therelay nodes, there is no way that they can make an educated guess about theinformation bit, since they have zero mutual information. Hiding informationfrom the other nodes can be made possible by a careful design of end-to-endcoding, data routing on top of other network mechanisms, flow control andscheduling in order for an efficient resource utilization.

The awareness for theprotection of privacy increases. To preserve privacy, the communicationpartners have to be hidden to nonparticipants. In today’s Internet it ispossible to determine who talks to whom and also how often, even if thecommunication is encrypted. In recent years, methods were developed to make thecommunication anonymous, but they did not get in place mainly because of thepoor throughput. In multi hop wireless networks it is even more difficult tokeep the communication partners anonymous. Privacy protection in such scenarioswill become more important with the new applications in such environment likeIP telephony and car to carcommunication.LITERATURE SURVEY   Thepaper presented by the YunusSarikaya, C.

EmreKoksal April 2016 provides us withthe details of howthe resource allocation problem affect the networkperformance, confidentiality problem of intermediate node,dynamic controlalgorithm for a given encoding rateand we prove that our algorithm achievesutility arbitrarily closetothe maximum achievable utility 1.Thepaper presented by Tao Cui, TraceyHo, JörgKlieIr Jan 2013 gives the idea ofNetworks with unequal linkcapacities where a wiretappercan wiretap any subsetof links, or networks where only a subset of links can bewiretapped. From thishow the Secrecy rate is achievableFor the case of known but not unknown wiretapset as weknow Determining the secrecy capacity is an NP-hard problem2.In thepaper presented by AshishKhisti, Gregory W. WornellJuly 2010 proposed a maskedbeamformingscheme that radiates poIrisotropically in all directions and showthat it attains near-optimal performance in the highSNR regime. Characterizethe secrecy capacity in terms of generalized eigenvalues when the sender andeavesdropperhave multiple antennas.The role of multiple antennas for securecommunication is investigated within the framework ofWyner’swiretapchannel.3.

O.OzanKoyluoglu, Can EmreKoksal, Hesham El Gamal May 2010. In this paper,thescaling behavior of thecapacity of wireless networks under secrecy constraintsand For extended networks with the path loss model ispresented. A uniform rateper user is considered in this work.A path lossmodel is considered, where thelegitimate andeavesdropper nodes are assumed to be placed according to Poissonpoint processes with intensities.

4The paper presented by N. Abuzainab and A.Ephremides Feb 2014, proposed scheme that Utilize private andpublic channels andwish to minimize the use of the (more expensive) private channel subject to arequired level ofsecurity.Two transmissions schemes, a simple baseline ARQscheme and the based on deterministic Network Codingcan be considered for theproposed work.5LunDong, Zhu Han, Athina P. Petropulu, H. Vincent Poor Mar 2010, In this paper,Usecooperating relays toimprove the performance of secure wireless communicationsin the presence of one or more eavesdroppers. Threecooperativeschemeshave been considered: decode-and-forward, amplify-and-forward and cooperativejamming.

Conclusion, Physical (PHY) layer security approaches for wirelesscommunications can prevent eavesdropping withoutupper layerdata encryption.6.C.EmreKoksal Feb 2013 presented that The secrecy constraint enforces anarbitrarily low mutual informationleakage from the source to every node in thenetwork,except for the sink node. I first obtain the achievable rate regionforthe problem for single- and multiuser systems assuming that the nodes have fullchannel state information (CSI) oftheir neighbors .In this paper, I studied theachievable private and openInformation rate regions of single- andmultiuserwireless networks with node scheduling7.

QizhongYao. In this paper, author introduced the concept of delay-aware energybalancing by minimizing theaverage transmission delay while taking into accountthe issue of unbalanced harvested energy distribution. Every UEfirst harveststhe RF energy emitted by the AP and then sends data to the AP directly or viaother UEs acting as relaysin a time multiplexing manner8.

AbhijeetBhorkar,IEEE 2015 Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receivernodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The mainchallenge in the design of minimum-delay routingpolicies is balancing thetrade-off betIen routing the packets along the shortest paths to thedestination and distributingthe traffic according to the maximum backpressure.In this paper key points are 1.CongestionmeasureImplementation,2.LyapunovAnalysis , 3.

Opportunistic Routing 9.YiGao. This paper presents Pathfinder, a robust path reconstruction methodagainst packet losses as as routingdynamics. At the node side, Pathfinderexploits temporal correlation between a set of packet paths and efficientlycompressesthe path information using path difference.

In this paper Wireless SensorNetworks, 1. Measurement 2.PathReconstruction methodology is given.10.AhmedE.A.A.

Abdulla July 2012. In this paper author proposed Hybrid Multi-hoprouting (HYMN)algorithm, which is a hybrid of the two contemporary multi-hoprouting algorithm architectures, namely, flat multi hoprouting that utilizesefficient transmission distances, and hierarchical multi-hop routing algorithmsthat capitalizes ondata aggregation. In this paper focus is given on Wirelesssensor Networks, Energy hole problem, Sink node Isolation11. PROBLEMDESCRIPTIONThereare a few numbers of existing works on secure multi-hop communications.

In thata particular wireless relay network called the fan network is studied, wherethe signal sent by a source node can be heard by all relays via differentoutputs of a broadcast channel. All the relay nodes are then connected to thedestination via a perfect channel by which destination can obtain receivedsignal from all relays without a delay. And considers the secret communicationbetween a pair of source and destination nodes in a wireless network withauthenticated relays, and derives achievable secure rates for deterministic andGaussian channel. Message authentication is one of the most effective ways tothwart unauthorized and corrupted messages from being forwarded in wirelesssensor networks (WSNs).For this reason, many messageauthentication schemes have been developed, based on either symmetric-keycryptosystems or public-key cryptosystems.Authentication scheme based on hybridkey exchange algorithms are used to transfer date over the nodes.·        Doesn’tconsider the problem of resource allocation.·        Dataconfidentiality is not satisfactory.

·        Increasethroughput of the system.PROPOSEDMETHODThe proposed system concentrateson providing high privacy to the message authentication. In addition to hop byhop message authentication, key exchange mechanism is enhanced throughdiffiehellman key exchange algorithm. The source node encrypts the data usingthe public key of receiver node, and then transmits the data. After receiverreceiving the data, it needs a private key for decrypting data. So the receiverrequest key server to produce a private key, the key server authenticates thereceiver access through key authentication.

It is very hard for the maliciousnode to get a key from key server. We explicitly consider in this paper. Inparticular: a) To achieve confidentiality,one needs to encode blocks of information across multiple packets. We develop anovel adaptive end-to-end encoding scheme, that takes certain observations fromthe network and chooses the appropriate code rate to maintain confidentialityfor each block of data.b) In a multihop network, eachnode possibly overhears the transmission of a packet multiple times as it istransmitted over multiple hops.

We take into account such accumulation ofinformation over multiple transmissions, in which the paths are disjoint andeach intermediate node has only one path crossing.c) We combine a variety ofstrategies developed in the context of information theoretic secrecy with basicnet-working mechanisms such as flow control and routing. Such a unifyingframework is non-existent in the literature as it pertains to multihopinformation transmission. For that purpose, we model the entire problem as thatof a network utility maximization, in which confidentiality is incorporated asan additional constraint and develop the associated dynamic flow control,routing, and scheduling mechanisms.d) We take into account wirelesschannel variations in our scheduling and routing policies as well as end-to-endencoding scheme for confidentiality. For that purpose, we assume thattransmitters have perfect instantaneous channel state information (CSI) oftheir own channelsSystemarchitecture  The following figure  1.

 Shows  that  how the  communication  is done  between  different wireless  sensor  networks. Proposed   system  manages   overlapped   wireless  sensor   network   with  following  architecture.Proposed   systemimplements  an  optimal dynamic  policy  for the  case  in which  the  number of  blocks  across which  secrecy   encoding is performed is asymptotically large Next to that, This work propagateencoding between a finite number of data packets, which  removes the  possibility  of achieving  perfect  secrecy.   In  this  case, proposed  work  design a  dynamic  policy to select the encoding rates for every data packet, based on theinstantaneous channel state information, queue states and secrecy  humiliation requirements.  By  numerical analysis,  we  observe that  the  proposed design  resembles  the optimal rates asymptotically with increasing block size. Finally, weaddress the impact of practical implementation issues such as infrequent queueupdates and de-centralized scheduling of nodes.

Existing work present theefficiency of our policies by numerical studies under various networkconditions. Next to this work proposed system contribute for deterministicnetwork coding Automation of repeat packet request mechanism to activelytransfer data packet. This help to network costs and other system parameterswere just designed as constants in our work the network costs are related tophysical layer parameters such as channel encoding parameters and transmissionpower.

  Here  proposed system  design  in  theway,  which  formulate problem  by  adding   noise  to  original message  or  request at  destination. Proposed  system also formulate  problem  ARQ case  in  which automatic  repeat  request is  send  between numbers of  time  slot during  packet sending.  Where, packets  are  generally transferred  via  private channel  and  public channel  from  sourceto destination. These packets are generally geometrically distributed amongnetwork nodes.Proposed work focus work to achieve node confidentiality need toencode block of information across multiple packet.  Where, adaptive end to end to encoding schemeis applied for node confidentiality EXPERIMENTALRESULTS DISCUSSIONOF RESULTSNodeDevelopment The mobile nodes are designed andconfigured dynamically, designed to employ across the network, the nodes areset according to the X, Y, Z dimension, which the nodes have the directtransmission range to all other nodes. MessageauthenticationEvery forwarder on the routingpath should be able to verify the authenticity and integrity of the messagesupon reception.

This can be done through the verification of public key. ACK isreplied to previous hop node if authentication is successful. Keyserver managementKey server is a certificateauthority server, which is responsible for message authentication. The keyserver verifies the information and authenticates the user. This could be akind of data encryption and decryption process. This is achieved through diffieHellman key exchange algorithm.

 KeyExchangeKey Exchange (also known as”key establishment”) is any method in cryptography by whichcryptographic keys are exchanged between two parties, allowing use of acryptographic algorithm. DiffieHellman key exchange The protocol enables users tosecurely exchange secret keys even if an opponent is monitoring thatcommunication channel. The D–H key exchange protocol, however, does not byitself address authentication (i.e. the problem of being sure of the actualidentity of the person or ‘entity’ at the other end of the communicationchannel). Authentication is crucial when an opponent can both monitor and altermessages within the communication channel (aka man-in-the-middle or MITM attacks).. CONCLUSIONAND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTIn this paper, we consideredthe problem of resource allocation in wireless multi-hop networks.

Allintermediate nodesare considered as internal eavesdroppers from which theconfidential information needs to be protected. So in order tomaintainconfidentiality end to end encoding with routing and flow control technique isincorporated. Additionalconstraint of security is considered and proposeddynamic network control algorithm. Proposed work mitigate overheadforced by theupdates transmitted to the scheduler.

To avoid that, Implement scheduled queueupdate algorithm, whereusers updates their queue length informationperiodically. We show that this algorithm again approaches the optimalsolutionin the expenseof increasing average queue lengths. Then, implement distributedversion of dynamic controlAlgorithms, where the scheduler decision is givenaccording to local information available to each node..

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