ABSTRACT temporal diversity due to channel variability. Our end-to-end


consider the problem of resource allocation and control of multihop networks in
which multiple source-destination pairs communicate confidential messages, to
be kept confidential from the intermediate nodes. We pose the problem as that
of network utility maximization, into which confidentiality is incorporated as
an additional quality of service constraint. We develop a simple, and yet
provably optimal dynamic control algorithm that combines flow control, routing
and end-to-end secrecy-encoding. In order to achieve confidentiality, our
scheme exploits multipath diversity and temporal diversity due to channel
variability. Our end-to-end dynamic encoding scheme encodes confidential
messages across multiple packets, to be combined at the ultimate destination
for recovery. We first develop an optimal dynamic policy for the case in which
the number of blocks across which secrecy encoding is performed is
asymptotically large. Next, we consider encoding across a finite number of
packets, which eliminates the possibility of achieving perfect secrecy. For
this case, we develop a dynamic policy to choose the encoding rates for each
message, based on the instantaneous channel state information, queue states and
secrecy outage requirements. In this paper, we propose a
scalable authentication scheme based on hybrid key exchange algorithm. While
enabling intermediate nodes authentication, our proposed scheme allows any node
to transmit an unlimited number of messages without suffering the threshold
problem. In addition, our scheme can also provide message source privacy and
act as resistance to sender and receivers. Both theoretical analysis and
simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme is more efficient than
the ECC overhead under comparable security levels while providing message
source privacy.

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Nodes, Noise bit, Diamond Network, Multi-Hop Network.


Message authentication is one of the most effective
ways to thwart unauthorized and corrupted messages from being forwarded in
wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For this reason, many message authentication
schemes have been developed, based on either symmetric-key cryptosystems or
public-key cryptosystems. Most of them, however, have the limitations of high
computational and communication overhead in addition to lack of scalability and
resilience to node compromise attacks. To address these issues, a polynomial-based
scheme was recently introduced. However, this scheme and its extensions all
have the weakness of a built-in threshold determined by the degree of the
polynomial: when the number of messages transmitted is larger than this
threshold, the adversary can fully recover the polynomial. In this paper, we
propose a scalable authentication scheme based on hybrid key exchange
algorithm. While enabling intermediate nodes authentication, our proposed
scheme allows any node to transmit an unlimited number of messages without
suffering the threshold problem. In addition, our scheme can also provide
message source privacy and act as resistance to sender and receivers. Both
theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that our proposed
scheme is more efficient than the ECC overhead under comparable security levels
while providing message source privacy.In multi hop packet transmission
Confidentiality of intermediate nodes for communication is to be considered, so
that data sent to a node is not shared by any other node. Also in which
confidentiality is not necessary, it may be not secure to consider that nodes
will always remain uncompromised.Keeping different node’s information
confidential can be viewed as a precaution to avoid a captured node from accessing
information from other uncaptured nodes. In a multi hop network, as data
packets are transferred, intermediate nodes get all or part of the data through
directly forwarding data packets the transmission of nearby nodes, when
transferring confidential messages. In this paper, I build efficient algorithms
for confidential multiuser communication over multi hop wireless networks
without the source-destination pairs having to share any secret key a priori.
The metric I use to measure the confidentiality is the mutual information
leakage rate to the relay nodes, i.e., the equivocation rate. I require this
rate to be arbitrarily small with high probability and impose this in the
resource allocation problem via an additional constraint. To provide the basic
intuition behind our approaches and how the source nodes can achieve
confidentiality from the relay nodes, consider the following simple example of
a diamond network given in Let the source node have a single bitof information
to be transmitted to the destination node, with perfect secrecy (with 0 mutual
information leaked) from there lay node. The issue is that the source cannot
transmit this bit directly over one of the possible paths, violating the
confidentiality constraint. This problem can be solved by adding random
noise(i.e., randomization bit) on the information bit, and sending the noise
and the noise corrupted message over different paths, which can then be
combined at the destination. Note that with the information available to the
relay nodes, there is no way that they can make an educated guess about the
information bit, since they have zero mutual information. Hiding information
from the other nodes can be made possible by a careful design of end-to-end
coding, data routing on top of other network mechanisms, flow control and
scheduling in order for an efficient resource utilization.The awareness for the
protection of privacy increases. To preserve privacy, the communication
partners have to be hidden to nonparticipants. In today’s Internet it is
possible to determine who talks to whom and also how often, even if the
communication is encrypted. In recent years, methods were developed to make the
communication anonymous, but they did not get in place mainly because of the
poor throughput. In multi hop wireless networks it is even more difficult to
keep the communication partners anonymous. Privacy protection in such scenarios
will become more important with the new applications in such environment like
IP telephony and car to carcommunication.


paper presented by the YunusSarikaya, C. EmreKoksal April 2016 provides us with
the details of howthe resource allocation problem affect the network
performance, confidentiality problem of intermediate node,dynamic control
algorithm for a given encoding rateand we prove that our algorithm achieves
utility arbitrarily closetothe maximum achievable utility 1.

paper presented by Tao Cui, TraceyHo, JörgKlieIr Jan 2013 gives the idea of
Networks with unequal linkcapacities where a wiretappercan wiretap any subset
of links, or networks where only a subset of links can bewiretapped. From this
how the Secrecy rate is achievableFor the case of known but not unknown wiretap
set as weknow Determining the secrecy capacity is an NP-hard problem2.In the
paper presented by AshishKhisti, Gregory W. WornellJuly 2010 proposed a masked
beamformingscheme that radiates poIrisotropically in all directions and show
that it attains near-optimal performance in the highSNR regime. Characterize
the secrecy capacity in terms of generalized eigenvalues when the sender and
eavesdropperhave multiple antennas.The role of multiple antennas for secure
communication is investigated within the framework ofWyner’swiretapchannel.3.

OzanKoyluoglu, Can EmreKoksal, Hesham El Gamal May 2010. In this paper,the
scaling behavior of thecapacity of wireless networks under secrecy constraints
and For extended networks with the path loss model ispresented. A uniform rate
per user is considered in this work.A path lossmodel is considered, where the
legitimate andeavesdropper nodes are assumed to be placed according to Poisson
point processes with intensities.4The paper presented by N. Abuzainab and A.
Ephremides Feb 2014, proposed scheme that Utilize private andpublic channels and
wish to minimize the use of the (more expensive) private channel subject to a
required level ofsecurity.Two transmissions schemes, a simple baseline ARQ
scheme and the based on deterministic Network Codingcan be considered for the
proposed work.5

Dong, Zhu Han, Athina P. Petropulu, H. Vincent Poor Mar 2010, In this paper,Use
cooperating relays toimprove the performance of secure wireless communications
in the presence of one or more eavesdroppers. Three

have been considered: decode-and-forward, amplify-and-forward and cooperative
jamming.Conclusion, Physical (PHY) layer security approaches for wireless
communications can prevent eavesdropping withoutupper layerdata encryption.6.

EmreKoksal Feb 2013 presented that The secrecy constraint enforces an
arbitrarily low mutual informationleakage from the source to every node in the
network,except for the sink node. I first obtain the achievable rate regionfor
the problem for single- and multiuser systems assuming that the nodes have full
channel state information (CSI) oftheir neighbors .In this paper, I studied the
achievable private and openInformation rate regions of single- and
multiuserwireless networks with node scheduling7.

Yao. In this paper, author introduced the concept of delay-aware energy
balancing by minimizing theaverage transmission delay while taking into account
the issue of unbalanced harvested energy distribution. Every UEfirst harvests
the RF energy emitted by the AP and then sends data to the AP directly or via
other UEs acting as relaysin a time multiplexing manner8.

IEEE 2015 Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receiver
nodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The main
challenge in the design of minimum-delay routingpolicies is balancing the
trade-off betIen routing the packets along the shortest paths to the
destination and distributingthe traffic according to the maximum backpressure.
In this paper key points are 1.Congestion
measureImplementation,2.LyapunovAnalysis , 3.Opportunistic Routing 9.

Gao. This paper presents Pathfinder, a robust path reconstruction method
against packet losses as as routingdynamics. At the node side, Pathfinder
exploits temporal correlation between a set of packet paths and efficientlycompresses
the path information using path difference. In this paper Wireless Sensor
Networks, 1. Measurement 2.PathReconstruction methodology is given.10.

E.A.A. Abdulla July 2012. In this paper author proposed Hybrid Multi-hop
routing (HYMN)algorithm, which is a hybrid of the two contemporary multi-hop
routing algorithm architectures, namely, flat multi hoprouting that utilizes
efficient transmission distances, and hierarchical multi-hop routing algorithms
that capitalizes ondata aggregation. In this paper focus is given on Wireless
sensor Networks, Energy hole problem, Sink node Isolation11.


are a few numbers of existing works on secure multi-hop communications. In that
a particular wireless relay network called the fan network is studied, where
the signal sent by a source node can be heard by all relays via different
outputs of a broadcast channel. All the relay nodes are then connected to the
destination via a perfect channel by which destination can obtain received
signal from all relays without a delay. And considers the secret communication
between a pair of source and destination nodes in a wireless network with
authenticated relays, and derives achievable secure rates for deterministic and
Gaussian channel. Message authentication is one of the most effective ways to
thwart unauthorized and corrupted messages from being forwarded in wireless
sensor networks (WSNs).

For this reason, many message
authentication schemes have been developed, based on either symmetric-key
cryptosystems or public-key cryptosystems.Authentication scheme based on hybrid
key exchange algorithms are used to transfer date over the nodes.

consider the problem of resource allocation.

confidentiality is not satisfactory.

throughput of the system.


The proposed system concentrates
on providing high privacy to the message authentication. In addition to hop by
hop message authentication, key exchange mechanism is enhanced through
diffiehellman key exchange algorithm. The source node encrypts the data using
the public key of receiver node, and then transmits the data. After receiver
receiving the data, it needs a private key for decrypting data. So the receiver
request key server to produce a private key, the key server authenticates the
receiver access through key authentication. It is very hard for the malicious
node to get a key from key server. We explicitly consider in this paper. In

a) To achieve confidentiality,
one needs to encode blocks of information across multiple packets. We develop a
novel adaptive end-to-end encoding scheme, that takes certain observations from
the network and chooses the appropriate code rate to maintain confidentiality
for each block of data.

b) In a multihop network, each
node possibly overhears the transmission of a packet multiple times as it is
transmitted over multiple hops. We take into account such accumulation of
information over multiple transmissions, in which the paths are disjoint and
each intermediate node has only one path crossing.

c) We combine a variety of
strategies developed in the context of information theoretic secrecy with basic
net-working mechanisms such as flow control and routing. Such a unifying
framework is non-existent in the literature as it pertains to multihop
information transmission. For that purpose, we model the entire problem as that
of a network utility maximization, in which confidentiality is incorporated as
an additional constraint and develop the associated dynamic flow control,
routing, and scheduling mechanisms.

d) We take into account wireless
channel variations in our scheduling and routing policies as well as end-to-end
encoding scheme for confidentiality. For that purpose, we assume that
transmitters have perfect instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of
their own channels



The following figure  1. 
Shows  that  how 
the  communication  is 
done  between  different 
wireless  sensor  networks. Proposed   system  
manages   overlapped   wireless  
sensor   network   with  
architecture.Proposed   system
implements  an  optimal 
dynamic  policy  for 
the  case  in 
which  the  number 
of  blocks  across 
which  secrecy   encoding 
is performed is asymptotically large Next to that, This work propagate
encoding between a finite number of data packets, which  removes 
the  possibility  of 
achieving  perfect  secrecy.   
In  this  case, 
proposed  work  design 
a  dynamic  policy 
to select the encoding rates for every data packet, based on the
instantaneous channel state information, queue states and secrecy  humiliation 
requirements.  By  numerical 
analysis,  we  observe 
that  the  proposed 
design  resembles  the 
optimal rates asymptotically with increasing block size. Finally, we
address the impact of practical implementation issues such as infrequent queue
updates and de-centralized scheduling of nodes. Existing work present the
efficiency of our policies by numerical studies under various network
conditions. Next to this work proposed system contribute for deterministic
network coding Automation of repeat packet request mechanism to actively
transfer data packet. This help to network costs and other system parameters
were just designed as constants in our work the network costs are related to
physical layer parameters such as channel encoding parameters and transmission
power.  Here  proposed 
system  design  in  the
way,  which  formulate 
problem  by  adding   
noise  to  original 
message  or  request 
at  destination. Proposed  system 
also formulate  problem  ARQ 
case  in  which 
automatic  repeat  request 
is  send  between 
numbers of  time  slot 
during  packet sending.  Where, 
packets  are  generally 
transferred  via  private 
channel  and  public 
channel  from  sourceto 
destination. These packets are generally geometrically distributed among
network nodes.Proposed work focus work to achieve node confidentiality need to
encode block of information across multiple packet.  Where, adaptive end to end to encoding scheme
is applied for node confidentiality





The mobile nodes are designed and
configured dynamically, designed to employ across the network, the nodes are
set according to the X, Y, Z dimension, which the nodes have the direct
transmission range to all other nodes.



Every forwarder on the routing
path should be able to verify the authenticity and integrity of the messages
upon reception. This can be done through the verification of public key. ACK is
replied to previous hop node if authentication is successful.


server management

Key server is a certificate
authority server, which is responsible for message authentication. The key
server verifies the information and authenticates the user. This could be a
kind of data encryption and decryption process. This is achieved through diffie
Hellman key exchange algorithm.



Key Exchange (also known as
“key establishment”) is any method in cryptography by which
cryptographic keys are exchanged between two parties, allowing use of a
cryptographic algorithm.


Hellman key exchange

The protocol enables users to
securely exchange secret keys even if an opponent is monitoring that
communication channel. The D–H key exchange protocol, however, does not by
itself address authentication (i.e. the problem of being sure of the actual
identity of the person or ‘entity’ at the other end of the communication
channel). Authentication is crucial when an opponent can both monitor and alter
messages within the communication channel (aka man-in-the-middle or MITM attacks)..



In this paper, we considered
the problem of resource allocation in wireless multi-hop networks. All
intermediate nodesare considered as internal eavesdroppers from which the
confidential information needs to be protected. So in order tomaintain
confidentiality end to end encoding with routing and flow control technique is
incorporated. Additionalconstraint of security is considered and proposed
dynamic network control algorithm. Proposed work mitigate overheadforced by the
updates transmitted to the scheduler. To avoid that, Implement scheduled queue
update algorithm, whereusers updates their queue length information
periodically. We show that this algorithm again approaches the optimalsolution
in the expenseof increasing average queue lengths. Then, implement distributed
version of dynamic control

Algorithms, where the scheduler decision is given
according to local information available to each node..



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