Abstract step to enter in the education system and





is the basic element of building any nation’s way towards the success and
prosperity. Pakistan is facing huge educational crisis since day of
independence. The purpose of this research is to identify the problems and
issues in education system of Pakistan. In this paper we have listed all the
issues which are becoming the hurdle in providing the good education or at
least the basic education to everyone in Pakistan, highlighting the factors of
and giving the solution to that issues.

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Education system:

system consists of all the private and government institutions that are
delivering the formal education. This also includes the physical
infrastructure, students, resources and a set of rules which are being followed
by everyone in education system.  These
institutions can be government, private, semi-private or semi-govt. As we are
talking about the system so it also includes the ministry of education which is
managing all these educational operations and educational boards which are
conducting the examination system region wise. The most important part of
education system is all the rules and regulation which every private and government
institution has to accept and follow to remain in the system.


Education system in Pakistan:

                                                              Pakistan is emerging as one of the highly
populated country, so the education system of Pakistan is made up of 260903
institutions which are serving 41018384 students with the help of 1535465
teachers on the whole. These are the huge figures. The number of private
institutions is less than the number of government institutions 80067 and
180845 respectively. Education system of Pakistan is consists of 5 major phases
which are given below.

Primary education:
primary education starts from initial step which is grade 1 till grade 5. That
is the basic step to enter in the education system and then pursue the
educational career but hardly 60% children completes the primary education and
goes to next level.

Middle education:
Middle education is from grade 6 till grade 8 but the subjects choosing options
is not much appreciated in rural areas due to lack of facilities of new
technology. The rural areas still prefers the single sex education system.

Secondary Education: Secondary school is further classified into two
categories secondary school and higher secondary school. Secondary school
covers the grade 9 and 10, so to clear secondary school you have to sit in a
regional board exam and then you can proceed to higher secondary school which
covers the grade 11 and 12. This grade builds the base for your professional
career as you have to specifically choose a field from engineering, medical,
social sciences and commerce group.

University education: After completing the higher secondary level
successfully students are allowed to get admissions in their related
disciplines like engineering, medical sciences. That is the gateway to further
higher education.


Use of Native language vs. international language:

start from the globally measured facts that 50-70 million children are not
enrolled in school or dropped out of the school in the early stages. The
children whose primary language is not the language of instruction are more
likely to drop out or fail I early grades. Same is the case with our education
system when a child got admission in 1st grade he/she just came out
of his home where everyone else is speaking Urdu/Punjabi and then suddenly the
whole world of that child changes and he’s onto the mission of learn English.
At the very start of educational phase children needs to be taught in native
language instead of pushing them towards modern language, institutions should
pay more attention to involve children in education rather than making it tough
for them to even understand a bit of their lesson. The system should be more
focused on making the enjoyable start of children’s educational career, so
he/she can put his/her interest in education. The system should be more
concerned about the gain of knowledge rather than gain the command on
international languages. According to a survey conducted in secondary level
schools 40% of students drop out of school just because they are not good at English
or they are unable to pass English exam. Same is the case with higher secondary
school where whole syllabus is in English and the students coming from rural
areas don’t feel comfortable with this and some of them drop out of colleges
and some of them just start memorizing the sentences without even knowing the
meanings or concepts of lessons. International language should be optional not


One system for all:

                                       The education system of every country is
same throughout the government and private sectors. In constitution of Pakistan
it is been stated clearly that government should provide the free education
till secondary school to every child, but the reality is totally opposite to
this. The government has failed to provide the quality education and basic
facilities of education in schools so that’s the main reason of rapid growth of
private institutions. According to a recent research on primary and middle
level education sector in Pakistan have drawn attention to the fact that
percentage of children going to private schools has increased drastically.
These private schools are spreading their network successfully just because
government is failing to fulfill their job. These private schools are not that
much expensive so they are targeting not only the rich but the poor or middle
class people as well. They fact is that even the poor people don’t want to send
their kids to government schools just because the lack of facilities and
improper infrastructure. The private schools are providing better quality of
education as compared to public schools that is another reason of diverting the
parent’s attention towards private schools.


There is
no issue if someone want to study in private institutions but that is for sure
if quality of education is improved in public sector then no one wants to miss
that opportunity and in other words we can say our constitutional right. The
government should deploy a monitoring system at least to ensure the same course
outline for private and public institutions. There should be a same syllabus
for everyone from grade one till secondary standard. The government should form
a department province vise to make policy like


the curriculum

the syllabus

the standards of education till secondary level

the Islamic education compulsory

the basic advance technology facilities



Quality and Quantity of Education:

the quality is always preferred above quantity in every field of life same is
the case should be with the educational system of Pakistan. To improve the
living standards of people in Pakistan more focus should be on quality of
education rather than quantity and this goal could be accomplish be arranging
the innovation trainings for teachers. The basic purpose of these trainings
should be to give awareness to teachers about how to involve children in
educational process and how to make them innovative and creative as we are
focusing on secondary school level right now. The professor of international
education at the University of Cambridge and director of the varsity’s research
equitable access and learning Centre stated about the quality of education in
Pakistan …

“Focusing on the latter
remains imperative as it is only quality education that could truly contribute
towards economic growth and development. To achieve that aim, there needs to be
renewed focus on the three pillars of an education system; on teachers,
teaching quality and learning and, particularly, learning that uses evidence-based
indigenous models.” 
Once this change comes about, she added,
Pakistan could actually start moving towards achieving the new global
Sustainable Development Goals on Education and ensuring inclusive, quality
education and lifelong learning for all by 2030. 

The quality of education has a huge role of teachers to put their best
in the students to get the most out of this educational system and students.
The teachers are the central characters of this quality learning of the
students, as teachers are intensely involved in this process to transfer the
best of their knowledge to their students. The Teaching is a respectable
profession and they are esteemed professionals but they do need to keep
learning about the advanced ways if interactive learning. The government should
arrange seminars, trainings and workshops for teachers to enhance their skills.


Gender biases in
Education System: 

                                                                          The gender discrimination can be seen
everywhere in Pakistan in almost every field, but this discrimination in
education system is more prominent and thoughtful. The gender discrimination is
actually not an issue which is not at the government end but that’s actually
the mentality of our society which is causing this discrimination. In urban
area this discrimination is getting reduced and females are getting involved in
almost every field of life and going for higher studies and making their way to
the professional life. In rural areas the situation is quiet worst, the people
have a perception that women are only for household work and they don’t need to
study. They just need to learn the household work and that’s all they need from
a woman’s life. This perception has to be changed if we want to be successful
as a nation. Education and economy are directly linked to each other, so if any
nation wants to become economically strong they need to invest big on education
and more importantly on equal educational opportunities for males and females.
Only those nations will survive in upcoming years who will give prime
importance to education.

 Pakistan has failed to reduce the
poverty rate from the society just because of low literacy rate. As only 57% is
literacy rate of Pakistan according to a survey which was conducted in 2012,
and the 57% literacy rate means that we have this ratio for those people who
are able to read and write it’s not about the higher education. Pakistan is one
of those nations which are investing arguably low on education and there are
not equal opportunities for female as 52% of our population consists of female.




of Proper Planning:  The education system of Pakistan is facing
some serious lack of planning issues. As in the constitution of Pakistan it is
written clearly that state will provide free education to every individual till
secondary school, but still our think tanks are failed to figure out any proper
plan to implement this. The government is failed to provide these opportunities
to the people and for higher education private sector is too costly that
everyone is unable to afford that. That is another reason of staying out of the
higher education.    


constraints: Social constraint is defined as the
rules set by any society for its population. There is huge role is society in
staying out of the education is family background and unplanned family system.
The biggest curse of our society is that we don’t consider education important
for growth and prosperity of society. In rural areas one thing is very common
people don’t tend to send their girls to colleges for higher education though
it is been observed this trend is getting changed in past few years but still
needs a huge amount of improvement.


Gender gap:
One of the major factor that hinder the enrolment rates of girls include
poverty, cultural obstacles, illiteracy of parents and parental concern about
safety and mobility of their daughters. Society should emphasis on the security
and protection of girls to increase the literacy rate.


Cost of education:
the cost of education in Pakistan is considerably high in private institutions
that everyone cannot afford it. Although government is trying to provide basic
primary education free of cost but the environment and facilities are not good
enough to encourage people to enroll their children in government institutions.
As for higher education private universities are charging huge amount which
everyone can’t afford in our society. 


War on Terror: Pakistan is been engaged in war against the terror since
last 2002 which has affected the security situation of country really badly,
bomb blasts are taken place in many institutes throughout the country. This war
has immensely affected the northern Pakistan, FATA and Baluchistan areas.


Funds for Education:
Pakistan spends lowest on education as it is 2.4%. At national level, 89%
education expenditure comprises of current expenses such as teacher’s salary
while 11% on the development expenditure which is not enough to raise the
quality of education. We are one of those nations where education is at least
priority and it’s an era of technological competition but due to poor
government officials we don’t have any proper planning about educational system
and no proper infrastructure for actual basic education.



Conclusion: The
education system of Pakistan is undergoing the development phase since the day
one, no doubt it is getting better day by day but the pace of development is
very low. Pakistan is facing major planning and policy making issues and more
importantly the financial issues in education system. Politicians are not much
serious to resolve this issue because their own families are not part of this
system at any stage. As I said situation is getting better gradually but pace
is low so government is now investing some funds for teacher’s advance
trainings workshops and seminars for awareness about upcoming technologies and
to make the learning more effective. There is another factor which is huge
barrier in education system of Pakistan is political and organizational
structure of departments is not much effective. If we really want to compete
with world of technology we have to take some important and major steps to make
our education system better and to provide a good and healthy educational
environment for our upcoming generations.