Abstract mostly used in computer programs and image processing

Abstract

 

 

The aim of this report entail explanation as to what motion analysis: analysing
technique which is mostly used in computer programs and image processing to
quantify movement patterns, methods of analysing and the process of analysing a
series of video clips to investigate the relationship between seat height and
the power generation for a person, who is cycling and resulting in the
selection of which particular video clip is the most effectively by using the
relationship between Power = torque * angular velocity. This process is done
using a software called Kinovea which is an simple but powerful software used
to analyse videos dedicated specifically to sports, however, it is also used by
medical professionals in image processing applications.

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Introduction

 

Motion
analysis is a technique that is used in mostly computer application, high speed
photography during any activity mainly in sports and even in medical
professionals use motion analysis during image processing. It allows the study
of quantify movement patterns present, where combination of examination of an
individual’s physical structure along with measurements of their function. (Gattupalli,
2015)

 

There are several types of motion
analysis.

 

1)      Dynamic
motion analysis calculates the forces generated by movement.

 

2)     
Kinematic analysis explains how
the design moves with respect to the forces and motion drivers applied. (Cajigas et
al., 2017)

 

Some of the advantages in motion
analysis are:

 

1.      Only one
stage is needed to capture several images and to analyses.

 

2.      Time
taken for motion capture is less compared to traditional methods

 

3.     
When considering animation
production, a large amount of animation can be produced with a larger sheer
volume.

 

4.     
The latest technology in motion
analysis allows digital technology and special effects, on contrast reducing
the amount of costumes, man power and sets to be prepared. Thus,

 

reducing
the cost. (Steves-digicams.com,
2018)

 

A motion
capture studio is a particular area where the floor and the walls are of the
same colour. The floor consist of pressure and motion sensors to detect the
dots placed on the subject. Sometimes, professionals use blue or green screen
for this function, however, in this case, certain sections of the set will need
to exist. But with motion capture, none of the set would need to exist as

 

 

 

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(Srh-mal.net, 2018)

 

the
subject’s image is not used. (Steves-digicams.com, 2018). The movement of the subject is captured by the sensors present on the floor and the high power cameras present in
the lab.

 

 

 

There are several methods of analysing, where throughout this report, a
powerful software called Kinovea, is used in this due to it being very simple
to use and analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: Motion Analysis Lab

 

 

 

Working principle of the proposed system

 

This section refers to the visual
description.

 

Video 01 which shows a height of
0 cm, shows that the pedalling is slow.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: video 01 – 0 cm

 

 

 

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However, video 02 with a height of 3 cm, shows that the pedalling is
faster than video 01 but slower than video 03.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3: video 02 – 3 cm

 

Video 03 is the fastest video,
having a seat height of 6 cm when compared with other videos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4: video 03 – 6 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Video 04 with a seat height of 8 cm is the most slowest because the leg
has to be stretched further to reach the pedals of the bicycle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5: video 04 – 8 cm

 

Theorize how the effectivity can be analysed qualitatively.

 

In the below mentioned method, the Kinovea software is used. The
following is the steps to carry out the analysis.

 

1.      Once the
software is installed, via files, the required video has to be selected and
uploaded.

 

2.     
Once the video is uploaded, a
task bar appears from which the cross marker icon is selected and the
particular point is marked. In this case, the ankle is point.

 

3.      Run the
program for 10 seconds by pressing the run button.

 

4.      Once
completed, pause the video and through files, the results can be exported to
excel spreadsheet.

 

5.     
Using the data present in the
spreadsheet, a scatter graph can be drawn with the X axis being time and the Y
axis being ‘Y’ coordinate. (Peursum, Venkatesh and West, 2007)

 

6.     
Count the number of cycles for 10
seconds (the number of peaks present in a 10 second graph) which is the
frequency and then multiply it by six to obtain the RPM for a minute.

 

7.      Using the
equation

= (   ×                     ×       ) ÷ 30

 

To
calculate the power generated.

 

8.   During
calculation, T is assumed constant and considered as 1.

 

 

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9.     
Depending on the power generated,
compare the values between the three videos and conclusion can be made.

 

There is
a manual method where the video can be played in VLC and the number of
rotations can be counted using a stop watch, however, the this method consist
of many human errors which will end up inaccurate results, so to eliminate
these errors, the software is used to analyse and obtain much more accurate
results.

 

The following assumptions were
made to ensure accuracy of the results.

 

1.      Air resistance
is negligible

 

2.      Weight of
the rider

 

3.      Type of
Muscles used

 

4.      Amount of
energy used during cycling

 

5.      Speed

 

6.      Frontal
plane factors are not considered

 

7.      Torque is
assumed to be the same throughout the videos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When considering video 01 with a
seat height of 0 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6: Running video 01 in
kinovea

 

 

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Video 01 – 0cm

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-50

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

-100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-200

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-300

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-350

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 7: Graph for video 01

 

 

 

Frequency = 7 for 10 seconds

 

RPM = 42 rotation per minute

=

= (   ×         ×       ) ÷ 30

= (1 ×         × 42) ÷ 30 = 4.398

 

 

 

When considering the video 02
with a seat height of 3cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 8: Running video 02 in
kinovea

 

 

 

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Video 02 – 3cm

 

250

 

200

 

150

 

100

 

50

 

0

 

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

 

-50

 

-100

 

Figure 9: Graph for video 02

 

Frequency = 9 peaks for 10
seconds

 

RPM = 54 rotation per minute

1111   =

= (   ×         ×       ) ÷ 30

= (1 ×         × 54) ÷ 30 = 5.655

 

 

 

When considering video 03with a
seat height of 6 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 10: Running video 03
in Kinovea

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Video 03 – 6
cm

 

200

 

150

 

100

 

50

 

0

 

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

 

-50

 

-100

 

-150

 

-200

 

Figure 11: Graph for video 03

 

Frequency = 11 peaks for 10
seconds

 

RPM = 66 rotations per minute

=

= (   ×         ×       ) ÷ 30

= (1 ×         × 66) ÷ 30 = 6.911

 

 

 

When considering the video 04 with
a seat height of 8 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 12: Running video 04
in Kinovea

 

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Video 04 – 8
cm

 

100

 

50

 

0

 

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

 

-50

 

-100

 

-150

 

-200

 

-250

 

-300

 

Figure 13: Graph for video 04

 

Frequency = 6 peaks for 10
seconds

 

RPM = 36 rotations per minute

=

= (   ×         ×       ) ÷ 30

= (1 ×         × 36) ÷ 30 = 3.770

 

 

 

Results and conclusion

 

 

Video 01

Video 02

Video 03

Video 04

 

 

 

 

 

Seat Height / cm

0

3

6

8

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency / Hz

7

9

11

6

 

 

 

 

 

RPM / rotations per minute

42

54

66

36

 

 

 

 

 

Power generated / W*

4.398

5.655

6.911

3.770

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1: Results for RPM
& Power generated

 

 

 

*With an assumption that torque (T) remains constant as 1

 

Based on the above results displayed, we can conclude that when the
torque remains constant throughout all 4 video clips, according to the below
equation, as the RPM: rotations per minute increase, the power that is
generated increases. Therefore, since video 03 with a seat height of 6cm is the
most effectively.

=

 

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= (  
×   ×       ) ÷ 30

 

P = Power (W)

 

T = Torque of moment (Nm)

 

?  = angular velocity ? = 3.14…..

RPM =
rotations per minute. (Engineeringtoolbox.com, 2018)

 

When T remains constant throughout the series of videos and considered
as 1 in the above calculations, therefore the RPM becomes directly proportional
to the power that is generated.

 

Recommendation for further improvements for the process

 

 

The following improvement can be
carried out to improve the accuracy of the analysis.

 

1.      
The videos can be analysed
several time and average can be obtain to calculate the time and coordinates
for the graphs.

 

2.      
The weight of the person applied

 

3.      
Different types of frontal plane factors that is
applied

 

4.      
Torque cannot be kept constant
throughout all 4 videos, therefore torque can be taken into consideration.

 

5.      
Air resistance can be considered.