Abstract: With the advancements in the medical field, it is easy totreat numerous diseases and study various micro organisms and produce lifesaving drugs that did not exist few decades back. However, we do not haveenough apparatus that is simple and user-friendly to analyze or makeassessments to determine the psychological conditions of a patient.
Thetreatment given to the patient is affected by the person’s psychological stateof mind in terms of stress or emotional levels. A person’s stress levels arebasically determined by the emotional response and in turn the electricalimpulses generated through the exchange of Sodium and potassium ions at theCell Wall of the Human Body which is generally maintained at -70mV. Theelectrical impulses can be captured at the Heart or Brain or both in order toanalyze the state of the response of a patient receiving any particulartreatment.
In our prototype we register the pulse rate using a heartbeat sensorand graph it at certain intervals of time. The slope joining the peaks ofconsecutive readings indicates the increase/decrease of the patients stress orresponsiveness to the treatment. Key words:Arduino microcontroller, Mat lab, Stress, PulseRate sensors.
II. Introduction: The prototype can be used basically at the causality oremergency centers at the hospitals. A person’s responsiveness to a particulartreatment depends on his/her vitals, i.e., blood pressure, heart beat strength,respiration and also their psychological state which depends on stress andemotions .The developed product aims at analyzing the stress and emotionallevels based on a pulse sensor and thus provide a parameter for the doctors tojudge the responsiveness of the patient to the treatment.
It can also be usedand the process of lie detection, treatment for psychological depressions ordisorders etc.On further development of the prototype which addsanalyzing of brain signals specially the alpha signals of the brain makes itmore accurate and also reduces the cost and complexity in the existingECG(Electro Cardio Gram) and EEG(Electro-Encephalogram). With proper dataprocessing both the signals can be studied combined or separately.Stress is your physical ormental response to certain situations.
It can affect you bodily and intellectual conditions, and your behavior. A person responds to stress by producing chemicals andhormones to help you rise to the challenge. Heart beat increases, brain becomeswork faster , and have a sudden change in energy or burst of energy. Thisresponse fundamental and wholesome and is what kept our ancestors from fallingvictim to hungry predators. But too much stress can have harmful effects. Notall stress is bad.
In general, somestress deepen your senses, helping to circumstances beyond ones control., powerthrough unexpected deadlines, or stay clear-minded in chaotic situations. Thisis the “fight-or-flight” response that your body triggers in times ofduress. But stress is meant to be temporary. Your body should return to anatural state after the situation has passed.
Your heart rate is calm down,your limb or muscle to become less rigid, and your respire should return tonormal. The pressures and demands of modern life may put your body in aheightened state for a long period of time, making your heart pump hard andyour blood vessels constrict for longer than your body can handle. Over time,these physiological demands can take a roll on your body. There3 types of stress: Acute Stress Acutestress is the most common type of stress. It’s your body’s immediate reactionto a new challenge, event, or demand, and it triggers your fight-or-flightresponse.
As the pressures of a near-miss automobile accident, an argument witha family member, or a costly mistake at work sink in, your body turns on thisbiological response. Severeacute stress such as stress suffered as the victim of a crime orlife-threatening situation can lead to mental health problems, such aspost-traumatic stress disorder or acute stress disorder. Episodic Acute Stress Whenacute stress happens frequently, it’s called episodic acute stress. People whoalways seem to be having a crisis tend to have episodic acute stress. They areoften short-tempered, irritable, and anxious.
People who are “worry warts” orpessimistic or who tend to see the negative side of everything also tend tohave episodic acute stress. Negativehealth effects are persistent in people with episodic acute stress. It may behard for people with this type of stress to change their lifestyle, as theyaccept stress as a part of life. Chronic Stress Ifacute stress isn’t resolved and begins to increase or lasts for long periods oftime, it becomes chronic stress.
This stress is constant and doesn’t go away. Chronicstress can be detrimental to your health, as it can contribute to severalserious diseases or health risks, such as:· heart disease· cancer· lung disease· accidents· cirrhosis of theliver· suicide It isyour body instantaneous response to a new provocation, event or demand. and ittriggers your fight-or-flight response. Anxiety stress such as stress sufferedas the victim of a crime or life-aggressive situation can lead to mental disordersof patient, such as stress syndrome or anxiety stress disorder. In addition, stressful perception , like worry and anxiety thatare compounded over time, contribute to problems like chest pain, arthritis,headache, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Stress plays a clear role indecreasing the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxinby the action of specific antibodies orsensitized white blood cells because youare on high alert. Spiritual responses stress include some of the following:Anxiety and depression symptoms. · Angerand outbursts or rage.
· Theinability to focus.· Withdrawingsocially and forgetfulness.· Increasedirritability and restlessnessPhysicalstress includes the problems that occur in the body, such as aches, pains and diseasethat develop due to stress. It also includes the responses to those symptoms,such as self-medicating with sugar or caffeine during times of stress. Some ofthe physical symptoms of stress include:· Chestproblems such as pain, heart palpitations, and heart disease Aches and pains in the body, including headache, back pains, and upset stomach Problems with sleep, such as waking up in the night and not being able to fall back asleep High blood pressureDissociativesymptoms include a sense of numbing or detachment from emotional reactions, asense of physical detachment, such as seeing oneself from another perspective,decreased awareness of one’s surroundings, the perception that one’senvironment is unreal or dreamlike, and the inability to recall criticalaspects of the traumatic event (dissociative amnesia). In addition to thecharacteristic dissociative symptoms, ASD shares many of the symptoms withPTSD(Post-traumatic stress disorder),including:· the experience orwitnessing of a threatening event that resulted in intense fear or horror· the re-experiencingof the event by means of flashbacks, recurrent thoughts or dreams, and distresswhen reminded of the event· the avoidance ofstimuli that serve as reminders of the event, such as feelings, thoughts,places, individuals, and activities· anxiety, includingrestlessness, difficulty sleeping and concentrating, and hyper vigilance.
· a significantdisruption in normal social or work functioning Stress ischaracterized by specific physiological responses to aversive or noxiousstimuli.HansSelye was the first to coin the term “general adaptation syndrome”, tosuggest that stress induced physiological responses proceed through the stagesof alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.Thesympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system gives rise to a specific setof physiological responses in response to physical or psychological stress.
Thebody’s response to stress is also termed “fight-or-flight response”, and it ischaracterized by an increase in blood flow to skeletal muscles, the heart andbrain, a rise in heart rate and blood pressure, as well as dilation of pupils,and an increase in the amount of glucose released by the liver.The onset ofan acute stress response is associated with specific physiological actions inthe sympathetic nervous system, both directly and indirectly through therelease of adrenaline and to a lesser extent noradrenaline from the medulla of the adrenal glands. Thesecatecholamine hormones facilitate immediate physical reactions by triggeringincreases in heart rate and breathing, constricting blood vessels. An abundanceof catecholamines at neuro-receptor sites facilitates reliance on spontaneousor intuitive behaviors often related to combat or escape.
If a stimulus is perceived as a threat, a more intense andprolonged discharge of the locus cerulean activates the sympathetic division ofthe autonomic nervous system (Thase & Howland, 1995). The activation of thesympathetic nervous system leads to the release of nor epinephrine fromnerve endings acting on the heart, blood vessels, respiratory centers, andother sites. The ensuing physiological changes constitute a major part of theacute stress response. The other major player in the acute stress response isthe hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. III. Proposedmodel- Mental stress testing can be studied from thecardiovascular changes caused by psychological stress.
To examine the effectsof cardiac drugs on mental stress-induced changes, it is useful to attain adegree of arousal that can be replicated in serial studies which are reliableto some extent but are not simple and user friendly and also involves complexprocessing of the signals generated. Hence, The heartbeat sensor amodern sensor that could determine the pulse rate based on the light beamsbeing reflected from the blood vessels and bones. The data from the heartbeatsensor is given as input to the Arduino Uno an Atmega328 micro controllerinterfacing unit which in turn processes it and gives the processed data to MatlabSoftware. The Matlab interfaced with the Arduino Uno receives the data throughArduino and Gives a Pictorial Output from which the stress levels aredetermined.The three major parts of solar trackingsystem are:1. Pulse Rate Sensor2. Arduino UNO microcontroller 3. Matlab IV.
METHODOLOGY: Block diagram of Stress AnalyzerThemain components of the proposed system are shown below .· Arduino UNO board-Atmega328· Pulse Rate Sensor SEN11574· Matlab Software Arduino UNO board-This microcontroller is on Atmega 328.Arduino has 14 inputoutput pins in which 8 pins are analog inputs, other 6 pins can be used as PWMoutputs, a power jack, reset button, a 16MHZ crystal oscillator, a USBconnections, an ICSP header. This microcontroller can be simply connected tothe system with the help of USB cable.
For a power source, youhave the option of using the USB or a DC jack. The NCP1117ST50T3G andthe Vin of this regulator is connected via DC jack input through the M7 diode,the SMD version of the famous 1N4007 diode. This diode providesreverse-polarity protection.The output of the 5Vregulator is connected to the rest of 5V net in the circuit and also tothe input of the 3.
3V regulator, LP2985-33DBVR. You can access 5V directlyfrom the power header 5V pin.When you use USB as apower source, and to provide protection for your USB port, there is a PTC(positive temperature coefficient) fuse (MF-MSMF050-2)in series with the USBVCC. This provides protection from over current, 500mA.
When an over current limit is reached, the PTC resistance increases a lot.Resistance decreases after the over current is removed. MATLAB – MATLAB combines a desktopenvironment tuned for iterative analysis and design processes with a programminglanguage that expresses matrix and array mathematics directly. WithMATLAB software, you can Acquire, measure, and analyze signals from multiple devices. Prototype, test, and implement DSP algorithms on PCs,embedded processors, SoCs, and FPGAs. ForEmbedded System Design, the MATLAB can be used for the following purposes.· Verifyfixed-point designs in simulation before implementation. Automatically generate C/C++ or HDL code for production and integration into your application.
Incorporate implementation-ready algorithms that generate optimized C code for ARM®processors and HDL code for FPGAs and ASICsThe Arduino Uno is also compatible with the MATLAB in orderto capture, Process, Plot/Stem the values and Analyze the signals generated bythe Arduino or received by the Arduino.The Interfacing between Arduino and MATLAB can be done fromthe following procedure. Arduino Interface withMATLAB – We’regoing to create simple MATLAB m-files to talk to our Arduinoboard.
The MATLAB Support Packages for Arduino Hardware lets you useMATLAB to communicate with your board through USB cable. The support packagesare available for 32-bit and 64-bit Windows, 64-bit Mac OS and 64-bit Linux. Installing Packages-You can easily install packages through yourMATLAB.1. First, start MATLAB and click the Add-Ons drop downmenu.
In the drop-down menu click Get Hardware Support Packages. It will start the package installer window.Select Install from internet and then Next.2.
In the next window you will see all the availablepackages for MATLAB and Simulink. Select the Arduino package, thencheck all the packages displayed and click Next tocontinue installation. Note that this picture is showing that I amreinstalling the Arduino packages because I had previously installed them.3. Next, the installer will ask you to log in to yourMathWorks account.
If you don’t have an account, you can create one duringinstallation. Accept the license agreement on the next screen and continue todownload the packages. Now you have to wait for MATLAB to downloadand install all the required packages.Testing Once the packages areinstalled, connect your Arduino board to your PC and type the following commandin MATLAB command window,>> a = arduino()if you have more than oneArduino connected to your PC, you have to specify the board type you willbe communicating with:>> a = arduino(‘com3’, ‘uno’)MATLAB will then attemptto communicate with your board. If successful, MATLAB will display theproperties of the Arduino board connected to your PC as shown below:This information displaysthe port on which your board is connected, the model of your Arduino board, andavailable pins and libraries available for the board. In your workspace, youwill see a variable a, which is the MATLAB Arduino object.
Run thefollowing command to clear this object.>> clear aThis command will removethe object a from your workspace. V. Working-The prototype working canbe defined on 3 stages.
1. Pulse rate Sensor SEN-11574 ThePulse Rate sensor SEN 11574 is a modern plug-and-playheart-rate sensor for Arduino. It can be used by students, artists, athletes,makers, and game & mobile developers who want to easily incorporate liveheart-rate data into their projects.It essentially combines a simple optical heartrate sensor with amplification and noise cancellation circuitry making it fastand easy to get reliable pulse readings. Also, it sips power with just 4mAcurrent draw at 5V so it’s great for mobile applications.
These readings are received by theArduino and further classified to bar graph it and implement the manual readingconvenience.2. Arduino: TheArdunio UNO is the most used and document board of the whole Arduino family .it is a microcontroller board based on At mega 328 P. the Arduino board is theprototype actsas an interface between the Sensor and the MATLAB software.
3. MATLAB: TheMATLAB software is used for graphing of the recorded pulse values and bargraphit as per the instants correspondingly. The MATLAB also provides interfacingoption with the Arduino by installing the respective corresponding packages andlittle programming for the Setting of the graph characteristics.
Theobtained graphs are stemmed plots with discrete value points each at certainintervals. The difference between any two consecutive points gives the degreeof rate of change of the emotional states which in turn provide a reference todetermine the Response of the patient for the treatment. MATLABwill attempt to communicate withyour board. If successful, MATLAB will display the properties of thesignals processed by your Arduino board. This information displays the ondevice which your component is interfaced, the model of your Arduino board, and available pins and libraries availablefor the board. In your workspace, you will see a variable a, which is theMATLAB Arduino object. VI.
Results and conclusion: Theoutput graphs given by the prototype gives information for the doctors toanalyze the stress levels and the responsiveness of the patient for the treatmentbeing given and thus decide the life saving prescription or can also be used ifthe person(the Subject) is facing heavy stress responses during the cases ofPsychological disorders or Lie detecting.Themean average slope of the stress elevations and declinations will give us aperpetuated result of the subject.VII. References : 1. james W.Dally & William F. Riley “Experimental StressAnalysisMcGraw-HillPublication, 3rd Edition, (1991).2.
O. Lippold, Physiological Tremor, ScientificAmerican, Volume 224, Number 3, March 1971. 3. A. Steptoe and M.Kivimäki, “Stress and cardiovascular disease: an update on current knowledge,”Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 34, no. 1, pp.
337–354, 20134. V. Marmarelis,”Modeling methology for nonlinear physiological systems,” Annals of BiomedicalEngineering, vol. 25, no. 2, 1997, pp.
239-251. 5.https://www.Elprocus.com 6.https://in.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/newsreader/view_thread