Abstract: The populace in the global scenario has drasticallyincreased in the past decades. Due to this situation the necessity oftransportation also escalated which simultaneously raised the pollution levels.Nowadays the populace commonly prefers their individual vehicles rather thanpublic transport system. This made the automotive manufacturers to come up withnew technologies and to compensate the stringent norms introduced by severalcountries. Internal Combustion engine has been serving the world more than acentury and plays a vital role in the means of transportation. Many researcheswere made to enhance the efficiency of IC engines by the usage of alternativefuels, alteration of the intake parameters, stroke variation, usage ofalternative materials etc.
, At present scenario of IC engine, the efficiencyranges between 35 – 50 % based on the technology used. If more efficient ICengines are used it would meet the demand of depleting fossil fuels. Suchengines may prevent the demise of fossil fuels. Thus our project deals with theprospect to discuss the phenomenal changes and effects occurring on IC enginewhen the working fluid is enriched oxygen. keywords: Oxygen-enriched combustion, Intake parameters, Strokevariation, Working fluid, Fossil fuel, INTRODUCTIONIndia has emerged as a fastest growing major economyin the globe; this plays a vital role in the development of nation in severalsectors, one of the significant sectors is transportation. Being a second mostpopulated country in the world, it has created a big demand of transportationwhich causes the increase in population of vehicles that is fulfilled by manyautomotive industries around the world. Owing to this issue India faces a worsetraffic condition in every nook and corner of cities. Another major issue isthe adulteration in the ambient air due to the pollutants emitted from thevehicles.
So there is an urgency to save and protect the environment frompollution for the betterment of the future generation. Many countries aroundthe world had introduced stringent norms that differ by names according to therespective countries. Likely India is following Bharath Stage (BS), Europe isfollowing Euro norms. This revised emission norms forced the automotivemanufacturers to come up with vehicles that satisfy those norms. Also to reducethe pollution and traffic level Delhi government introduced an odd-even systemin which the odd numbered vehicles have to be driven on a particular day andeven numbered vehicles on the other days. Also several researchers focused toimprove the efficiency of IC engine 5, some tried with alternate fuels, somewith renewable energy etc.
, Country like India cannot immediately implement thefuture technologies like Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hydrogen Fuel Cell. So itis necessary to enhance the betterment in IC engines to cope up with the norms.This paper details the oxygen-enriched combustion on the performance parametersand its impact on the emission of exhaust gases in the macroscopic level.
K.Rajkumar and P. Govindarajan 1 examinedthe combustion of oxygen enriched air and its performance in a single cylinderwater cooled diesel engine loaded with an eddy current dynamometer. In this experiment, oxygen-enrichedcombustion technology was incorporated in a computerized modelled single cylinder dieselengine using data acquisition system. In the mixing chamber, the ambient air was fed and the oxygen from the O2cylinder was limited to 4 L/min which was measured using a gas flow analyzer.After inscribing all the necessary parametrical values in the data acquisitionsystem, the performance page illustrates various performance parameters such asBP, fuel consumption, load, speed and flue gas temperature.
The combustion pagedescribes miscellaneous performance characteristics likely mechanicalefficiency, IP, FP and mean effective pressure. An increase of 15 % in SFC, 25% in mean effective pressure and 5 to 20 % in ?mech was achievedwhen the oxygen concentration of 4 L/ min was maintained. The BP was increasedto nearly 70 % when the O2 concentration was maintained between 1 to4 L/min. The combustion efficiency was increased when the exhaust gastemperature was raised to 30 ?.Dinesha P et al. 2 incorporated enriched oxygen in a computerizedsingle cylinder water cooled DI diesel engine coupled to an eddy currentdynamometer.
Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) was the biodiesel used in thisexperimental setup. 20 % of cardanol, 10 % of methanol and 70 % of biofuelblends were used to test the performance, combustion and emissioncharacteristics of oxygen enriched air supply in the concentration of 23 %(ambient air) and extra concentration of O2 at 3, 5 and 10% atinjection pressure of 180 bar and injection timing of 27 ? bTDC. The resultswere compared with the standard diesel fuel. The level of O2 wasadjusted by means of mass flow meter which was supplied from the O2cylinder. AVL Digas 444 analyzer and AVL 437 C smoke meter were used to measurethe exhaust emissions. A higher HRR was observed when the O2 concentrationwas 7 % with B20M10 fuel. With B20M10 fuel at full load condition with 7 % O2enrichment a 28 % NOx emission, 36 % increase in CO, 1 % lowersmoke and 13.3 % lower HC was observed.
A. M.Falahat et al. 3 investigated the engine performance with hydrogen-oxygenmixture as a supplement combustor in single cylinder air cooled SI engine. Inthis experiment, H2 was produced on-board through water electrolysiswhere the H2O molecule was split into H2 and O2 gasesknown as HHO gas or brown gas.
A gas flow meter was used to measure the rate ofHHO gas flow in the engine. Kane automotive gas analyzer was used to measurethe exhaust emissions and the speed by digital tachometer. The engine wasexperimented at variable speeds ranging from 1350 to 2250 rpm withmiscellaneous flow rates of 1, 1.5 and 2 LPM of HHO gas. Then the experimentalparameters were kept constant and a little quantity of HHO gas was inducted andengine performance parameters were measured.
Finally the volume of HHO gas wasincreased until the fuel savings tend to be optimum. A peak percent of 23 % ofBTE was achieved after enrichment of H2. When the flow rate of HHOgas increases, brake power and torque increases.
MohamedBrayek et al. 4 analyzed the performance and emission of a single cylinderair cooled SI engine when a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen was added andcompared with gasoline fuel. Hydrogen and oxygen was generated by employing thefuel cell. Flame arrestor and flame trap were the safety devices that preventflame from reaching the electrolyser. The experiment was executed under variableload conditions. Several measuring equipments were employed to measure ambientand flue gas temperature, output voltage and current, fuel consumption andconcentration of the exhaust gases. The engine was tested under steady statecondition and the loads of 0, 0.
3, 0.75, 1.2 and 1.5 kW with the supplement of5 l/min of H2/ O2 mixture to the fuel. BSFC decreased by7.8 % when enrichment of H2/ O2 increases at more than0.3 kW loads. The flue gas temperature was reduced when the enrichment of H2/O2 increases.
Abbreviations and Acronyms: BP Brake Power BS Bharath Stage BSFC Brake Specific Fuel Consumption CNSL Cashew Nut Shell Liquid CO Carbon Monoxide EV Electric Vehicle FP Friction Power HC Hydrocarbon HHO Hydrogen-Oxygen mixture IP Indicated Power LPM Liter Per Minute NOx Oxides of Nitrogen SFC Specific Fuel Consumption SI Spark Ignition Conclusion· Whileemploying oxygen-enriched combustion, An increase of 15 % in SFC, 25 % in mean effectivepressure and 5 to 20 % in ?mech was achieved when the oxygenconcentration of 4 L/ min was maintained.· While using B20M10 fuel blend with enriched oxygen,with B20M10 7 % O2 concentration was to the standard diesel fuel andsuggested for better engine operation.· WhenHHO gas was used as a supplement in SI engine, When the H2 flowrate was 2 LPM, SFC decreases by 16.
9 %. CO and NOx lower when theflow rate of HHO gas increases.· WhenH2/ O2 was employed as a supplement in SI engine, Anunblunt drop of HC was observed when the enrichment of H2/ O2increases at all engine loads. 31. 8 % of CO was reduced when the enrichment ofH2/ O2 increases.
References:1 K. Rajkumar, P. Govindarajan, Impact of oxygenenriched combustion on the performance of a single cylinder diesel engine, Front.
Energy 2011, 5(4): 398–403DOI 10.1007/s11708-011-0157-72 Dinesha P, Vighnesha Nayak and Mohanan P, Effectof oxygen enrichment on the performance, combustion, and emission of single cylinderstationary CI engine fueled with cardanol diesel blends, Journal of MechanicalScience and Technology 28 (7) (2014) 2919~2924. DOI 10.1007/s12206-014-0644-y3 A. M.
Falahat, M. A. Hamdan And J. A. Yamin, ENGINEPERFORMANCE POWERED BY A MIXTURE OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN FUEL OBTAINED FROMWATER ELECTROLYSIS, International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol. 15,No. 1, pp.
97?101 (2014).4 Mohamed Brayek, Mohamed Ali Jemni1, GueorguiKantchev, Mohamed Salah Abid, Effect of Hydrogen–Oxygen Mixture Addition onExhaust Emissions and Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine, Arab J Sci Eng, DOI10.1007/s13369-016-2228-x5 Karthikayan Sundararajan, Krishnaraj Janathanan,Vasanthakumar Pandian, Madhankumar Dhandapani, and Kalaiyarasan Kanagara,”A Performance, Combustion and Emission Study on HCCI Engine: Trends andInnovations,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-28-0013, 2016,doi:10.4271/2016-28-0013.