AbstractBuilding andconstruction is the fastest growing market sector has a major impact inincreasing the environment pollution. Therefore, it has become essential toreview in-depth the technology of materials science to reduce their negativeimpact on the environment and their application on innovative architecture.Recently, great attention has been given to the application of Nanomaterialsthat play a crucial role in sustainable and ecological lifestyle. Furthermost,the potential to enhance more eco-friendly and sustainable possibility withoutcompromising the efficiency, structure, durability, cost-effectiveness, andproductivity is of key importance.
However, understanding the use of this new technologyis essential to convey the advantages of such technology to achieve thesustainable design in order to attract the willingness and openness of bothengineers and the owners. The aim ofthis research is therefore to provide a new insight of nanomaterial and theiruse to comprehend the necessity of the designer/architect to be intellectuallyaware of the fresh innovations and trends to keep up with modern technique andpractical understanding of ”smart” materials and to provide a dramatic advancementand improvement in the construction industry. The authors demonstrate differentcase studies about Nanomaterials and their use in buildings to answer thequestion about the role of Nanomaterials in the development of an innovativedesign for transportable environments. Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nano materials, Architecture, Sustainability, SustainableDesign, Construction.
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ‘We have onlybegun to speculate upon the uses of these new materials in architecture. Characteristicproperties have begun to emerge however, in recently developed materials thatare the opposite of many conventional materials now in widespread use. ..
. Dramaticchanges in the properties of recently developed materials will ultimately transformarchitecture…
1:pp.1. 1.1Introduction As a result oftechnological development in architecture and building industry, and asbuildings are significant users of materials. New materials are beingdiscovered and developed daily cause a larger part of pollutions on both theinterior and exterior environment ranging from consuming natural resources,increasing energy consumption during their production, and releasing toxicsubstances 2, 3. Accordingly, selecting the proper material is the key rolein achieving sustainability. Research in nanotechnology has a promising futuremainly in the implementation of Nano-technological products at low costs and inan environmentally friendly way in construction industry 4.
It has beenobserved that Nano-smart building materials have distinctive characteristicsthat can notably secure current environment related construction issuesrepresents an example of how creative inventions combined with eco-efficiencyand a knowledge-based road to evolve old based products into new and enhancedbuilding materials 5. Therefore, sustaining our built environment needs theefforts of designers, engineers, contractors and scientists alike to seek ahigher performance of new materials to enhance more eco-friendly andsustainable possibility without compromising the efficiency, structure,durability, cost-effectiveness, and productivity is of key importance for newresponsive materials 6. 1.2 Background Since thebeginning of the twenty-first century, Richard Feynman the Nobel Prizephysicist has opened the way for innovations related to nanotechnology. Nanotechnologyas a discipline covers many application areas (materials science, engineering,chemistry, physics, and biology). This new emerging nanotechnology “nanotech”has the ability of producing Nanomaterials, Nano derivedfrom Greek word Nano (in Latin nanus), isa prefix that means one billionth “One billionth” (10 -9) istypically measured in nanometers, or billionths of a meter, involvesdeveloping materials which are lighter, stronger, and requires less energy toproduce, or improving the properties of conventional construction material 7.
Moreover, awareness has been given to Nanomaterials to achieve innovativesustainable construction in addition to their role in architectural designthinking in producing innovative solutions for the negative impact on theenvironment 8-9. 1.3 Research Problem Nanotechnologypresents a lot of materials and applications in the field of architecture andconstruction. The reason thistechnology is not being utilized in the construction industry is due to lack ofexperience in the application of nanotechnology in building industry in architects, engineers, and contractors in most of the developingcountries.
1.4 Research Hypothesis To affirm theresearch goal, this research has the following hypothesis:- Application of Nanomaterials in architecture and construction industry sustaining our environment.- Nanomaterials lead tonew modernization and advancement in future architecture. 1.
5 Research Objectives This research isseeking to investigate what Nanomaterials are and how they might be applied inarchitecture and building industry for many problems in the 21st century. Thataim was attained through the following objectives: • To review how nanotechnology and itsinnovative building material benefit the sustainability of the environment.• To establish a basic knowledge aboutNano-smart building materials and its merits in construction buildingtechnologies, architectural design business, and environmental remediation.• To showcase the importance and greatpotentiality of nanotechnology and it’s smart building materials that areapplied in construction building technologies, architecture and interiordesigning. • Encourage engineers, architects, andinterior designers to construct and design a building with parallel to enhancethe environmental sustainability. • To provide improvement and utilization ofnew and innovative resources to make the environment a better place to live. 2.
0 LITERATURE REVIEW The use ofnanotechnology influence the built environment at all scales architecture,interior design, and city design that replace conventional technologies that donot cause significant changes in the design and the built environment inproducing materials with unique properties capable of expressing both high andcustomizable performance, durability, reduce production cost, minimalenvironmental impacts together with aesthetic aspects of architecture 7, 9.For example, nanotechnology allows concrete to achieve properties similar tosteel in low weight, carrying capacity, energy resources savings, and loweringpollution related to the cement industry; metals with greater hardness;producing transparent ceramics; and polymers with improved resistance to heatand resistance to weathering 9. In addition, nanotechnology has the potentialto transform the built environment from building enclosure materials (coatings,panels, and insulation) to energy, lighting, and security, which dramaticallyalter the nature of building an enclosure that produces new functions and newrelationship between people, building and environment 8. AlthoughNanomaterials are effective to environmental, their usage is not wide-spread inbuilding industry as a result of limited knowledge, limited raw material, fearof risk, and high cost. Therefore, to overcome these obstacles, Nanomaterialsshould be introduced to people through architects and engineers, advertisementsand through a big building project to make people more aware and familiar withthem. On the other hand, the application of Nanomaterials they can have adversereactions to the environment and can cause several diseases as theirbiodegradation has not been thoroughly studied 4.
According toMahdavinejad et. al. 10, Nano materials are classified according to their usein buildings to three types: Façade, lighting, energy and structural system.Most appreciated developments of nanotechnology are fullerene (a new form ofcarbon, C60) and carbon nanotubes that includes materials or devices structuredon the nanometer scale to gain unique properties, as Nanoscale materialsdemonstrate physical, chemical and biological properties that are verydifferent from those of their normal-sized counterparts figure 1 5. Accordingto Hernandez-Moreno & Torre X, Nano materials are classified according to3 dimensions:a) One-dimension Nanomaterials (1D) <100nm are thosematerials commonly used as surfaces like thin films to produce intelligentglass to regulate light and heat.b) Two-dimension Nanomaterials (2D) <100nm for example tubes.
Thosematerials used for their excellent mechanical and electrical properties, forexample producing Portland-cement-based concrete, increasing its mechanicalstrengths and nanowires are used in electronic devices such as sensors andconductors in the automation of intelligent buildings.c) Three-dimension Nanomaterials (3D) <100nmfor example, particles, quantum dots, buck balls, etc. The most representative example is the Fullerene (figure 2) C60,takes the name of architect Richard B.
Fuller, who was building geodesicbuildings based on hexagons and pentagons and it has different applications inconstruction: highly efficient lubricants; superconductors; photovoltaic cellsin combination with polymers. Fig.1. Nanotubes and Graphite sheetof nanotubes 5.
Fig.2. Fullerene C60, which is constituted of a third allotropic form of Carbon 4.
2.1 Nano smartmaterials Nanomaterialsare often defined as an object that has a minimum of one dimension in Nanometerscale 5. Nanotechnology is the modeling of Nano smart materials bycontrolling the matter at different levels of atoms, molecules, andsupermolecular structures often measured in Nanoscale. In simpler words,Nanomaterials comply with smaller atoms to form new large-scale materials 12.It is grouped with means to their dimensions. Nanomaterials in construction canbe shown as economic due to their ten times lighter and hundred times strongerthan any regular material 5.
Nano smart building materials are the enhancedtechnology for materials and productions that possess the capability ofrecognizing and understanding the environmental events. These materials canaccomplish sensing and activate functions that are skilled to the changes inthe environment 13. In other words,these Nanomaterials own the competence to change and reverse change theirformation in answer to their physical and chemical effects 11. 2.1.1NANO SMART MATERIALS IN DESIGNING SECTORSOver time, the designing industry has evolved and havereached great heights. Building materials are one of the major element inconstruction, architecture and interior design and its related disciplines,hence, it is expected that Nanotechnology and its Nanomaterials will provide aprospect in refining the nature of building structure and resolve importantissues related to the environment. Several building materials that integrateNanotechnology provide functional properties such as self-cleaning windows tolight-emitting walls and ceilings, fire resistance, unique sensing propertiesto monitor temperature, humidity, and airborne toxins.
One of the mostchallenging issues was that of energy efficiency which deals with climatechange and helps reduce the greenhouse gas emission which in turn assist inachieving a more sustainable environment 10. Utilization of these materialsin the designing industry will not only increase the life expectancy of thebuildings but will also help in enhancing the environmental surroundings,modernization of the structure, decrease energy consumption and improve methods15.Nanomaterials have the ability to change their form, color, andinternal energy, in addition, they present an opportunity in improving thenature of building structure, solve problems relate to the environment, and unveilmore solutions to meet some of the biggest challenges of our time 11. 2.1.2 Nano Materials– Merits in Construction Due to their unique and flexiblecharacteristics, Nanomaterials can be used in the construction industry in manyareas. Nanomaterials have the capabilityto secure the ongoing building problems and transform the organization ofconstruction methods 12. Traditional materials such as steel, cement, glassor polymers when assorted in mass with Nanomaterials or altered in its physicaland chemical assembly through classification of the materials is known as aNanostructured material.
The attributes of Nanostructured constructionmaterials and its elements are accordingly changed due to their usage, force,and resistance in related field construction management. The usage of advancednanotechnology based on its Nanomaterials in construction has the ability toexpressively improve the sustainability of building materials, by concentratingon spectacles and not on the material object 13. The aim of nanotechnology isto accomplish various goals, mainly focusing on eco-friendly, green surroundingand low cost with high performance 5. Nanomaterials offer more efficiencymeaning cumulative strength, ductility, durability, and ability thantraditional materials. Utilization of these materials in the constructionindustry will not only increase the life expectancy of the buildings but willhelp in enhancing the environmental surroundings, decrease building cost andimprove building and construction methods 11.
Providing greater attention toinnovations in Nanomaterials and systems accessible is crucial in theconstruction industry and to maximize its reciprocal relationship in the nearfuture 18.104.22.168 Nano Materials– Merits in Architecture Nanomaterialsin architecture denote in providing resolutions that can avoid drawbacks suchas obstruction of natural resources, the downfall of bionetworks and ecologicalpollution. Sustainable architecture is accountable for structures that can betolerable and healthy long-lasting 11. The aim for an architect is nanotechmaterials and its virtues that will assist the near future needs towards asustainable and renewable approach 14.
To achieve a sustainable environment,crucial methods should be undertaken, both functional and visual aspects ofconstruction involving broader matters such as eco-efficiency and growth ofgreen surrounding 11, 7.Different practices that can be undertaken:· Usage of fabricincorporated with self-cleaning properties in order to minimize the cleaningwork load and water usage.· Nano coatingsused on structural surfaces to protect from rain, dirt run off and heat.· Application ofheat absorbing glass, whose interlayer provide cost effective possibilities tominimize heat and energy loads.· Anti-foggingglass can be used for clarity for steamed up surfaces, contains high surface energyand therefore high moisture absorption. 3.0 RESEARCH METHODS Based on the research objective stated previously,the intention of this study is to determine excessive potential of Nanotechnologyand it’s smart building materials for a sustainable environment. Which was doneby reviewing and interpreting the philosophy of Nanotechnology in differentfields by relevant journals and literature analysis.
The methodology of this research adaptedthe following procedure:· To explain Nanotechnologyand its different attributes in Nanomaterials throughout the study.· To showcase Nanomaterialsand its uses in diverse sectors of designing such as construction andarchitecture.· To assess the Nanotech-materialsand its strength in making the environment sustainable.
3.1 Nanomaterialsand its merits in different sectors of construction and designing region Some products of nanotechnology are practiced and has been adaptedfor a while now. The table 1.0 below shows some central materials that has beenin use and has been rapidly recognized in its subjective businesses. Table 1.0: Application and advantages of Nanomaterial in variousbuilding sectors Serial No. Distinguished Nanomaterials Division/Sectors Uses Advantages 1. Aerogel insulation Construction Window insulator To avoid heat access 2.
Self-cleaning glass Interior Design Hydrophobic structures Glass stays cleaner for long. Reduces the dirt & grime adheres 3. Nano sensors Construction Monitor & control the performance Structure health/ environmental performance 4. Carbon nanotubes Architecture Mainly in polymers & antistatic packaging industry Way stronger than steel but their weight to be one-sixth of a nanotube fibre 5. Rapid hardening concrete Construction Constructing roads & buildings Reduces shrinkage & superior resistance 6. Nano Paints Interior Design In Hospitals/residential buildings/industrial locations Water-proofing, corrosion protection & flame resistance 7. Air purifier Architecture In textile/paints Improves quality of air.
Eradicates dirt & pollutants. 4.0 RECOMMENDATIONThetime ahead of manufacturing and designing inventions is looking up to greatinnovations and ideas for the structural business and high-qualityperformances. Nanotechnology is one such innovation that is yet to be establishedto its full caliber in the business world.
In order to do so, insight innanotechnology and its merits must be brought upon in various coursework ofengineering, interior designing, and architectural degrees. To showcase itsseveral benefits of nanotechnology and its smart nanomaterials in economic andenvironmental growth. Marketing of nanotechnology by designers to consumers bybeing the bridge of knowledge for the advancement of the environment andmodernization of building structures with cost-effective options. A collectiveeffort among governmental associations to promote and assure healthy andeco-friendly regions, by setting ground rules for constructing anddesigning. Evaluations should be undertakenfor any technologies tested and tried in order to comprehend the effectsbetween different smart materials and its chemical and physical properties onthe environment and sustainability.
5.0 CONCLUSION This result of this research shows that Nanomaterials in buildingindustries in Bahrain are not familiar with the lack of awareness andappropriate cognition of new products. Therefore, and to comply with thisnecessity it is required from the involved groups such as academic staffs,designers, construction companies and people to be aware of the functions andapplications of new products in using them in their projects. In addition,holding conferences, specialized workshops, and seminars, and participating ininternational conferences and exhibitions can play an important role inencouraging implementation of Nanomaterials.
If doneso, nanotechnology will be proved to be a unique and cost-effective bargain forthe construction and designing world in the long run. Slowly but surely, Nanoproducts such as glazing, coatings, paints etc., are emerging in the public eyebut are yet to be fully reputed as a whole of nanotechnology. More explorationand enactment are required for the regulation of a sustainable environment bystudying and adapting nanotechnology.