Abstract- The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) ofmost countries in the world are based on the agriculture contribution of thatparticular country. The agriculture contribution in GDP are due to the presentconditions of weather in the whole world and the losses incurred due to thisweather condition in the field of crop. In the present conditions the newtechnologies and progressive fertilizers used in the field of farming actuallydoes not reached in the hand of farmers till date. In this paper a concept forautomated watering system in farming is introduce which uses wireless sensorstechnology for detection of moisture in the soil suitable for farming using asmart phone application which will play the important role for farming. The programmedwatering system to plant for farming purpose using Arduino system and an android application is used for thisparticular work.
Even this application of android will provide information’s tothe farmers related to agriculture like costs of seeds, level of moisturerequired, amount of water required, which type of soil needed, forecastweather, fertilizers to be used and pesticides required. Keywords: Farming, ArduinoUNO, Programmed Watering System, Andriod application, Hygrometer Sensor, GDP(Gross Domestic Product).I. IntroductionManysectors related to agriculture are the pillars of world’s economy as they arethe principal means of livelihood in rural areas of most of the countries inthe world. The financial value of all the complete goods and services producedin the country in a precise time period is referred to as GDP. Agriculture hasbeen contributing largely to GDP to many countries over the years. One can takethe example of India i.
e. in 2012-2013 agriculture contributed to 13.9% of thetotal GDP 1 and employed 47% of the total workforce population2. If onetake the example of India, the efforts done by the central government, stategovernment and the community have been successful in achieving a production of264 MT of food grain during the year 2013-2014 34.Ithas been seen that the contribution of agriculture to GDP is notstraightforward i.e.
non-linear from the year 1951 to 2014. There are manyreasons which are responsible for this decline like diversification and growthof Indian economy, bad weather conditions which lead to crop loss, Framer’s nothaving knowledge of new technologies which they can use for the betterment ofoverall profit from agriculture and its related sectors. In spite of all these difficultiesfarming is a basic source of work and plays a significant role insocio-economic growth of countries.Toimprove the above conditions discussed, one can make use of new technologies inagriculture field. In recent times, the practice of mobile phone has become acommon mode of communication in whole world regardless of the age group.Majority of the people uses android phone which is having android as anoperating system and are becoming popular because of user friendly and goodfeatures like internet browsing through handset and 3G and 4G, Wireless LAN connectivity,hardware like GPS, accelerometers.Ifone talk about India, the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, hastaken various steps in the interest of farmers for their growth as well ascountries growth. The mKisan portal inaugurated in the year 2013 July byHonorable President of India has received as of 1,85,40,07,285 messages,5,74,40,63,746 and 237,777 advices till 8th of April 2015 5.
Thestock availability with dealers of seeds and fertilizers was made availableweekly/daily at Rs. 5/month/dealer 5. In India applications like Krishi Ville6, Kissan Kerala 7 are an effort to deliver information regarding farmingto the farmers through internet.Thecurrent conditions of farmers are not very good in most of the countries. Thereare various reason related to this conditions such as high cost of life e.
g.education, health etc, poor management is also one of the reason to their badconditions. In India it is assessed that more than a quarter of a millionIndian farmers have committed suicide in the past 16 years. Thus it isimportant to improve the living style of farmers with the help of newtechnologies implementation.Theuse of mobile application which has been suggested will work as farmer’s supporterin the field. These mobile applications will provide important agricultureinformation like forecast of weather, prices of crops, costs of fertilizer andseeds, about pesticides to be used, type of soil required for a particularseeds and moisture level required.
Therefore this mobile application will bevery useful for farmers as they will be able to seek information regardingagriculture with just few clicks. More ever the application will reduce thefield work of farmers by providing the control to water plants. II.
Need Of New TechnologyThetwo basic problems faced by the farmersare:1) The new technologies that areuseful for effective farming are not known by the today’s farmers.2) As the weather conditions aredisturbed in most of the countries in the world and there is a limitation of waterresources, there is an acute need of using water efficiently.Todealt with the above problem, a system is proposed, Smart Framing usingArduino. According to this system there will be information hub from whichfarmers will get information about latest technology in agriculture field andfarmers will be updated with new technologies in the field of agriculture.Apart from this there will be automated watering system which will reduce theburden of farmers and also it will use the limited supply of water efficiently.
Closed Loop SystemIna closed Loop systems, the farmer can make a general control strategy forwatering system using Arduino. Once the general strategy is made, the controlsystem will work by making detailed decisions on when to apply water and howmuch the quantity of water to be applied. This type of system requires feedbackfrom the sensors as shown in fig 2.
Farming activities and decisions regardingfarming are made using the data taken from sensors. In this type of system, thefeedback and control of the systems are done regularly. Closed loop controllersrequire data of environmental parameters like level of moisture soil,temperature, speed of wind etc. III. Components Used A.
ArduinoThisis an open source prototyping policy built on user friendly hardware andsoftware which can be modified as per the requirements of the user 1. ArduinoUNO board consisting of microcontroller ATmega328P is used to control motorsusing controller. The programming of Arduino board is done in such a way thatit will sense the moisture level in the soil and notifies the farmer 8. B. HygrometerSensorHygrometersensor is used to detect the content of moisture level in the soil.
When thelevel of moisture content falls below a threshold level, then the soilhygrometer detection outputs a high level and vice versa. When this sensor isintegrated with Arduino based module the automatic watering plant system isformed in which no human supervision is needed for watering of crops. C. Ethernet ShieldThisis used to connect the Arduino with the internet easily. This enables theArduino to send and receive data from anywhere in the world with an internetconnection required which can be used for real time application. D. ArduinoControllerTocontrol the direction and speed of motor using Arduino we used Arduino Controller,this also allows an additional motor to be connected with an external powersupply up to 12V.
E. Servo MotorWhenwe integrate the servo motor with a sensor it allows to control the angularposition. The mechanism involved in servo motor removes the error in the systemusing negative feedback and hence improves the performance of the system.
F. An applicationrunning on android phoneAndroidis an open source operating system which is mostly used in smart phones now adays. In most of the countries in the world, almost 70% of mobile phone usersare using android as it si user friendly. Android apps are designed anddeveloped using tools like Android studio, Eclipse, Visual Studio etc.
IV. MethodologyThereare two major functional units for its working i.e. soil hygrometer sensor andservo motor (water pump). The work of soil hygrometer sensor is to check thelevel of moisture in the soil and then send a signal to the Arduino UNO ifwatering is required or not. The hardware block diagram representation of thesystem is as shown below in fig.
1. Fig.1. Block Diagram of hardware representation Inthis paper the Arduino controller isused to control the motor.
Arduino and android application will communicatewith each other via internet.Theworking of plant watering system is shown in the fig.2 in the form of aflowchart.
The detailed steps are as given: Fig.2 Flowchart for automated watering system usingfeedback 1.Soilhygrometer sensor will be deployed inside the soil. It will check the level ofmoisture of the soil and send the signal to Arduino UNO. Arduino will comparethe level of moisture with the database value for a particular plant from theinformation hub and accordingly it will do the watering for the particularplant or seed.2.
If the moisture level is below the threshold value for that particular plant, anotification for watering a plant will be sent to farmer through ArduinoEthernet shield by Arduino UNO.3.Farmers will be having two option whether they want watering of plantautomatically or they will do it manually.
4.Depending on the option selected by the farmer, appropriate actions will becarried out by the Arduino UNO. If farmer selects automatic option, Arduino UNOwill trigger the servo motor via Arduino controller to turn ON and supply thewater to the particular plant. When the moisture level reached at the desired alevel the system will stops on its own and servo motor is turned OFF. If thefarmer selects manual mode, Arduino UNO will trigger the servo motor to turn ONand the time will be decided by the farmer that when to stop the motor.
Anandroid application overall mechanism which will control watering system andwill assist farmers to obtain the required information for the particular plantis described in figure 3 and 4.Infigure no.3 a no.
of steps has been explained for farmers that how they have tosign up on an android app. Once the farmer has successfully signed up, his/herprofile will be created and he will be able to see the information’s regardingagriculture through news feed page. News feed page will contain weatherinformation and many other useful information. The working of the system aftersuccessful login is as shown in figure no.4. Fig.
3 Steps for Sign Up to Android Application A detailed information’s regarding crops such as cost of the seeds,moisture level of soil required, pesticides and fertilizers to be used, allthese will be stored in a database. An android application will be connected tothe database which can be used as a source of data using regression algorithmalong with key points like crop, soil type, area, seeds, weather conditions.In addition to all these the farmers can share their viewsregarding the methods they have used in farming and the technologies they areusing with the help of android application. Therefore if one can see that thisapplication will be very helpful to the farmers in seeking information withjust few clicks.Using the empirical data the android application will also predictthe weather conditions for the coming days.
To give the weather conditions itwill consider the following steps; it will consider the last week’s temperaturealong with the temperature value of the same dates of last four years andcalculate the average value which will be the best predicted temperature value.It will also pressure , wind speed, humidity, clouds. These data or informationwill better help the farmer to plan his action during the agricultural cyclelike taking precautionary measures over a predicted hailstorm and hencesafeguard his interest. Fig.4 Working of Android Application V. Conclusion AndFuture Work The essential part of farming is watering which is an indispensablecultural practice making this part automated will lessen the burden of farmers.In addition to this the android application will make the lifestyle of farmerssmarter and faster.
Making water system automated will make the limited use ofavailable water efficiently. Also the availability of different information’sregarding agriculture directly in the hand of farmer through the use of appwithout making him independent on his friend, neighbors or waiting for a SMSfrom the mKisan portal schemes, this will make the farmer independent and cantake the instant decision. This will not only make the productivity higher butwill also enhance the farmer life reducing stress and also making them curiousto learn the new technologies which is essential in this era of Digital revolution. This will also help toincrease the GDP of the country. There is also future scope in this field by making some improvementplan which can be incorporated in this app by giving more accurate predictionsabout weather conditions.
As different sensors are used, all the information’scan be recorded on the servers. Future work can also be done to build acommercial sellable product with possible addition features like harvesting, avideo camera sending live video feed to the farmer’s cell phone via an IPcamera.