Abstract: demand). This can be achieved either by using

Abstract: – Electrical energy is the most common and widely used type of
energy in the world. Energy conservation refers to reducing energy consumption
through using less of an energy service. The subject of energy conservation is
a concern for most energy users particularly at domestic. Energy conservation
becomes even more important for the common people (middle class sector) because
of rising energy cost and this is because of limitable availability of resource
(non-renewable energy).In this paper, the application of Energy conservation
techniques by which electrical energy can be saved and made cost efficient from
the perspective are presented for a home as well as laboratory in our college. So
for saving the electric energy for whole world, first start from your home.

– limitations for energy resources, energy consuming products, star rating
products, tariff, and ghost consumer.    

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We depend on electrical
energy for almost everything in our life. We desire to build our life more
comfortable and for that we take the help of different devices and this uses
electrical energy but at the same time we don’t realize that we have started squandering
it, So for that energy conservation is important.

This can be done by using less of an energy
service (by reducing the demand). This can be achieved either by using energy
more efficiently (using less energy for a constant service) or by reducing the
amount of services used (for example, instead of using light at home, making
maximum use of daylight). Energy conservation reduces the need for energy
services, and can result in increased environmental quality and higher saving.
It also reduces the consumption of energy for the same level of activity.

Energy efficient measures the difference
between how much energy is used to provide the same level of comfort,
performance by the same type of product. A combination of both energy
conservation and energy efficiency measures yield an ideal solution.      

Hard facts on why energy conservation is
important are below:

We use energy faster than it can be
produce-coal, oil and natural gas (the most utilized source can take thousands
of years to form).

Energy resources are limited – India has approximately 1% of
world’s energy resources.

Most of the energy sources we use cannot be
reuse and renewed non-renewable sources constitute 80% of fuel use. It is said
that our energy resources may last only for another 40 years or so.

Energy saving would also lead in decrease of

Conservation of energy
at various levels

Energy conservation at domestic level

Energy conservation at community level

Energy conservation at industrial level


Energy conservation at community level:

All unnecessary lights should be turn off epically when
conference room etc. are not in use

Computers       and
other equipment’s should be set to their energy saving mode

Energy conservation in industrial level:

Energy audition

Process softening

Minimizing light load

Energy conservation at domestic level:

Energy preservation in major appliances

Energy auditing

Energy conservation by using appropriate rating        of appliances based on your need.


Energy consuming products at home










10.  Computer

11.  Residential
flour mill

12.  Microwave oven


Calculating tariff for
split air conditioner (1ton) (for
summer season)

Code no.-AR12FC5UAEB-1200 BTU

It consumes 1200 watts of power per hours

Running time of AC: – 6 to 8 hours a day

.`. 1200 * 8 = 9600 watts (9.6 kWh)

Number of days AC is use (ex. May: -31 days)

.`. 9.6 * 31 = 297.6 kWh/month

Charges for per unit consumed = 5.40 rupees

.`. 297.6 * 5.40 = 1,607 rupees/month


Calculating tariff for
tube light

1 tube light consumes 40 watt power per hour

Number of tube light: – 3 tube light.

.`. 40 * 3 = 120 watt

Usage time per day: – 4 hours

.`. 120 * 4 = 480(0.48 kWh)

Number of day’s tube light is used: – 31days

 .`. 0.48 * 31 = 14.88 kWh/months

Charges for per unit consumed = 5.40 rupees

Tariff category LT I (B)-Residential Units/Month: – 101 to 300

.`. 14.88 * 5.40 = 80.352 rupees/month


Techniques for energy
conservation for some products

For AC

Buy the correct size equipment to meet your family’s need – an
oversized air conditioner unit will waste energy

Keep the ac lower at night

Use window or portable units

Service your units

Adjust your furniture(so that it does not block the air flow)

Turn off light (helps in reducing heat)

Use fan to circulate cool air

An external OFF timer circuit could be set which would help to
turn off your AC before you wake up. This timer is connected between supply
switch and your AC.                                               (1200
* 31 = 37.2 kWh ,                    37.2
* 5.40 = 200.88 rupees)

 For tube light & bulb

Led tube light can be used .it only use 20 watt. (50 to 55% less
than usual tube light)

Led bulb can be used.

Use task lighting (table and desktop lamps )instead of room

Use electronic chokes in place of conventional copper chokes (it
reduces 2 to 3% use of electricity)

For fans (ceiling, exhaust, table)

Efficient fans can be used and for restrooms exhaust fans could
be rewired with light so fans operate only when lights are turned on

Turn fans on only when you’re home and using rooms in which
they’re located

Install energy star celling fans, which on average circulate air
with 20% more efficiency than non-certified models

For washing machine

Run full loads

Buy a front-loading machine

Use cold water rather than hot water

For refrigerator

Minimize door opening as much as possible

Defrost your refrigerator regularly

Turn on refrigerator’s “energy saver” switch

Keep your refrigerator away from heat sources, such as oven
dishwasher and direct sunlight from a window

Check the door seal(gasket) on the refrigerator

Buy energy star qualified refrigerator models only

Energy star qualified refrigerators use at least 15% less energy

For computers/laptop

Buy a laptop instead of a desktop, if practical – saves 5%

Use sleep – mode when not in use helps cut energy cost by
approximately 40%

If you buy a desktop, get an led screen instead of an outdate

Laser printers use more electricity than inkjet printers

The most important
Ghost consumer

Identify the ‘ghost consumer’ which consume power –but because
they are plugged in and are in stand-by mode

The TV consumes 10 watt power when it is in stand-by mode

TV is in stand-by mode for 10 hours a day.

consumption /day =

* 10 = 100 watts (0.1 kWh)

consumption/month =

* 100 * 30 = 3000 watts (3 kWh)

consumption in rupees =

* 5.40 = 16.2 rupees/month

The TV consumes 5 watt power when we don’t plug out from switch
board (20 rupees/month)

The cell phone charger uses 3 watt per hour when plugged

Mosquito mats consumes 5 watts per hour

If you use an electric geyser, do not leave it in thermostat
mode, for it causes standing losses of 1- 1.5 units.



for our laboratory

Number of led = 15

Energy consumed by each led = 25.2 watt

Usage time per day = 8 hours

.`. 25.2 * 8 = 121.6 (0.1216 kWh)

Number of day = 31

0.1216 * 31 = 3.77 kWh/month


Techniques for
reducing power

Light intensity
sensor measures brightness of light and according to that it change its resistance
the resistance of a CdS cell is inversely proportional to the amount of light
falling on it. If bright light is falling on the sensor the led’s will lower
the intensity and if lower intensity light is falling on sensor the led’s will
blow bright.



List of electronics device

Time (hours

Unit consumed per month before (kwh)

Unit consumed per month after (kwh)

Techniques used



(1,607 rs )

(1406.16 rs)

An external OFF timer circuit is set

tube light


(26.78 rs)

13.39 rs)

Led tube light is use rather than normal one

Led use in lab



Depending on availability of other light

Light intensity sensor

Ghost consumer (ex. TV)


(197 rs)

(16.7 rs)

Remove plug out of the switchboard












Energy conservation is a method to reduce energy demand.
Conserving energy is an important way to reduce strain on the environment and
bring down electricity expenses. December 14th is celebrated as
WORLD ENERGY CONSERVATION day. Energy conservation supports the eco-friendly
lifestyle by providing energy, which saves the money and at the same time the
earth, so to save the earth start from your home.   



Electrical India – India’s oldest magazine on power and
electrical products industry ,September 5.2015 – Vishal Kumar & Bhavesh R

Hermann Scheer “Energy Autonomy: The Economic, Social &
Technological Case for Renewable Energy – Mr. A Behera, LinkedIn corporation.

Blog by apartment therapy – Sarah Rae smith, June 21. 2010

Electrical Technology – ElectricaltechnologyOrg , 12.23.2016

Wikipedia.org energy conservation & techniques.