Abstract— Control – build a system of checks and

Abstract— In this study a coir manufacturing industry is choosen for study. In this the major problem is rejection of bale in the final stage due to quality problem. The important reason for the reduced quality of the bale is due to the improper drying of the coir in its initial stage. Six sigma principles are applied are improvements are observed. Index Terms—Six sigma, Coir Industry. DMAIC, DMADV. I. INTRODUCTION Six Sigma is an innovative and adaptive set of methodologies geared toward improving the efficiency and effectiveness of corporate processes. It is attributed with reducing the number of defects in manufactured goods to less than 3.4 per 1 million units. Six Sigma uses two different sets of methodologies, DMAIC and DMADV, as lenses to examine and address complementary aspects of business processes. The DMAIC and the DMADV distinctions are aimed at viewing different sectors of a business simultaneously but addressing them separately. Despite unique distinctions, the methodologies overlap during the examination process and share the same end goal – improvement of business processes. ? DMAIC The set of Six Sigma methodologies that is most applicable to the manufacturing or production side of a product or service, DMAIC includes these project stages: ? Define – address the identification of specific processes to be examined ? Measure – record data and use metrics to track effectiveness and evaluate efficiencies ? Analyze- utilize critical thinking skills to review data and clarify goals ? Improve – create changes in business processes geared toward improvement and better alignment with corporate goals ? Control – build a system of checks and adjustments for ongoing improvement in production processes A) COIR Coir or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut. Coir fibres are found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. The individual fibre cells are narrow and hollow, with thick walls made of cellulose. They are pale when immature, but later become hardened and yellowed as a layer of lignin is deposited on their walls. Each cell is about 1 mm (0.04 in) long and 10 to 20 µm (0.0004 to 0.0008 in) in diameter. Fibres are typically 10 to 30 centimetres (4 to 12 in) long.7 The two varieties of coir are brown and white. Brown coir harvested from fully ripened coconuts is thick, strong and has high abrasion resistance. It is typically used in mats, brushes and sacking. Mature brown coir fibres contain more lignin and less cellulose than fibres such as flax and cotton, so are stronger but less flexible. White coir fibres harvested from coconuts before they are ripe are white or light brown in color and are smoother and finer, but also weaker. They are generally spun to make yarn used in mats or rope. Figure 1 Coir B) TYPES OF COIR Coir produced by use of coconut husk and this is also wellknown as a natural fibre. Coir is produced by handmade procedure from coconut husk and sometimes use machinery to produce coir from outer shell of coconut. After harvesting mature coconut and extract nut from coconut husk, which is outer shell of coconut fruit. There are various grades of coconut choir available and it is better to consider the grade of husks before application. There are various types of coconut coir in the market such as IMPLEMENTATION OF SIX SIGMA IN COIR MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Janaki S, Assistant Professor, PSG College of Technology. Vikas Sundar R ,PG Scholar , PSG College of Technology 2 ? Brown fiber ? White fiber ? Bristle Coir ? Buffering Coir C) APPLICATIONS Coir is widely used to produce rope and most of coir rope got greater strength. . Most of coir production is environmental friend and they can easily recyclable. Coconut coir use for various types of production such as ropes filters in aquariums, floor carpets, brushes, bed mattress and seat covers. Some of the other applications are in upholstery padding, sacking and horticulture. White coir, harvested from unripe coconuts, is used for making finer brushes, string, rope and fishing nets. II. MANUFACTURING PROCESS A) PROCESS The starting point of the industry is the process of dehusking after harvesting of the mature coconut crop. Coir fibres are extracted from the husks surrounding the coconut. In most areas coir is a by-product of copra production, and the husks are left on the fields as mulch or used as fertiliser due to high potash content. For production of light coloured fibre of spinnable quality green husk of 10 to 12 months old coconuts is ideally suitable. B) FIBRE EXTRACTION The processes of fibre extraction are varied, and depend on the effectiveness of the wet processing such as bleaching and dyeing of coir and also varied end uses. There are two different types of fibre extraction, ? Traditional extraction ? Mechanical extraction 1. TRADITIONAL EXTRACTION The traditional production of fibres from the husks is a laborious and time-consuming process. After separating of the nut, the husks are processed by various retting techniques generally in ponds of brackish waters (for three to six months) or in backwaters or lagoons. This requires 10-12 months of anaerobic (bacterial) fermentation. By retting, the husks are softened and can be decorticated and the fibre is extracted by beating, which is usually done by hand. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. The remaining residual pith – which was previously considered a waste problem – has recently found new profitable markets as a peat moss substitute for horticultural production. Traditional practices of this kind yield the highest quality of (white) fibre for spinning and weaving. Retted fibres from green husks are the most suitable fibres for dyeing and bleaching. For the production of more coarse brown yarns shorter periods of retting may be applied. 2. MECHANICAL EXTRACTION Alternatively, mechanical processes using either defibering or decorticating equipment process the husks after only five days of immersion in water tanks. Crushing the husk in a breaker opens the fibres. By using revolving “drums” the coarse long fibres are separated from the short woody parts and the pith. The stronger fibres are washed, cleaned, dried, hackled and combed. C). MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1) HARVESTING AND HUSKING Coconuts that have ripened and fallen from the tree may simply be picked up off The outer layers covering the coconut seed are processed an spun into fibers commonly known as coir. Figure 2 Manufacturing process 3 2) RETTING Retting is a curing process during which the husks are kept in an environment that encourages the action of naturally occurring microbes. This action partially decomposes the husk’s pulp, allowing it to be separated into coir fibers and a residue called coir pith. Freshwater retting is used for fully ripe coconut husks, and saltwater retting is used for green husks. 3) DEFIBERING Traditionally, workers beat the retted pulp with wooden mallets to separate the fibers from the pith and the outer skin. In recent years, motorized machines have been developed with flat beater arms operating inside steel drums. Separation of the bristle fibers is accomplished by hand or in a machine consisting of a rotating drum fitted with steel spikes. III. MACHINE USED Figure 3 Machine Used MODEL COM16A CAPACITY 1000 KG PER HOUR MOTOR RATING 128.5 hp WEIGHT 4000 kg IV. DEFINE PHASE Coir (or) coconut fiber extracted from the husk of the coconut. They are useful in several applications such as doormats, mattresses, and brushes. Extraction of coir form coconut husk requires several sequences of operations. A field study was conducted in one such coir extraction factory. A field study was conducted at S.N Fibers located at Solavanthan in Madurai district. The field study aims at reducing the cost and increasing the profit. Cost reduction can be done by several ways such as reducing the cycle time, reduction of man power required, perfect forecasting and so on. However, another major factor, which is responsible for increasing the cost, is the amount of inventory. The inventory may in a form of raw material, WIP and finished goods inventory. Here, the major problem observed was the high holding cost due to finished goods inventory, which is been maintained to tackle the uncertainties. Suggestions is been recommended to reduce the inventory level, which will in turn bring the holding cost down. The major concern for the industry is rejection of final bale due to improper drying. Suggestions are given to improve the quality of the bale. IDENTIFICATION SUPPLIER ? Coconut vendor ? Machines INPUT ? Man power ? Machines PROCESS ? Extracting ? De-husking ? Drying ? Spinning OUTPUT ? Fiber bale V. MEASURE PHASE A) DATA COLLECTED Weight of a coir bale = 120 kg Demand per month = 10 containers (exporting) Size of a container = 21 tons Production rate = 10 per hour Inventory 1 (capacity) = 400 bales Inventory 2 (capacity) = 900 bales Extraction time = 1000 kg per hour Bailing process = Stamping + Pressing = 6 minutes per bale Size of a coir bale = 4 ft X 3 ft X 3 ft (i.e.) The bale is with 4 feet length, 3 feet wide and 3 feet high. Price of coir = Rs 10 per kg 4 B) POST EXTRACTION Once the coir is extracted from the coconut by several processes, the process is not over. The extracted coir are allowed to soak in a moving water. The coir is a very good observer of water. Once it is allowed to get soaked in the water to remove dirt etc.. then they are allowed to dry under sunlight. When they are dried under sunlight, the process, which is performed on the dried coir is baling. C) BAILING Coir baling process is not a integral process of manufacturing. Baling is nothing but compression of coir to form bale. Baling is done for the purpose of ease of transportation. Here, in this industry their main source is exporting. In order the export the coir, exporting it as it is, is a cumbersome task. In order to make it easy baling operation is performed. Baling process compresses the coir in to a single piece, which is very helpful in transportation. Figure 4. Coir Bale D) COIR PITH Coir piths are nothing but the waste, which are formed in the coir extraction process. They are 100% organic and also servers several purposes. The piths manufacturing also requires bailing. The piths are generally used to grow crotons in foreign countries. Developing countries like India still does not have a good awareness about the piths. VI. ANALYSE PHASE A) PROBLEMS OBSERVED A complete observation of the collected data clearly shows that they hold a huge amount of inventory. Their inventory capacity is about 1300 bales approx. Usually, inventory cost is considered as a big burden to the organisation. The first thing that comes to the mind on seeing this data is that the organisation is holding the inventory unnecessarily. The reasons given by the organisation for holding inventory is, ? Reasons for Inventory 1: To meet the uncertainty As discussed earlier, before bailing process is performed, the coir needs to be dried well. Coir without complete drying cannot be sold (or) exported. The method used by them to dry the coir is by natural means. That is, they use sunlight to dry the coir. Here, comes the major chance of uncertainty. The major source of uncertainty for the organisation is rain. Rain makes the coir wet, which in turn hinders the production. As they are exporting bales on contract basis, they cannot afford to minimize their output. In order to avoid loosing of foreign customers and not to lose their goodwill, they are maintaining this inventory. ? Reasons for Inventory 2: As mentioned earlier, their monthly demand is 10 containers. However, they ship by exporting twice every month. That is they export the bales once in fifteen days. So, the requirement for the export for every fifteen days is 5 containers. They produce the bales daily and store it for fifteen days and then they export it. Inventory 2 is required to hold the bales that needed is to be exported. B) MAJOR PROBLEM The major problem is rejection of bale in the final stage due to quality problem. The important reason for the reduced quality of the bale is due to the improper drying of the coir in its initial stage. Figure 5. VSM VII. IMPROVE PHASE A) SOLUTION INVENTORY Area of the inventory = 50 X 50 5 Status of the land in which inventory is located = Owned Number of labours employed = 1 Salary of the labour = Rs 7500 per month Transportation and over head costs = Rs 30000 per year Total cost per year = Rs 1,20,000 B) SUGGESTION The complete analysis of the situation suggests that the inventory can only be avoided only when the uncertainty is reduced. It is inferred that the uncertainty happens only due to the fact that the organisation depends on sunlight for drying the coir. Uncertainty can only be avoided only when the method of drying is changed (or) altered. The suggestion is to purchase a dryer machine to dry the coir. This is making the organisation independent of the climate. When they perform drying with the help of a machine the inventory can be avoided. VIII. DRYER MACHINE The dryer machine has a sheet conveyer in order to aid for continues operations. The operation performed by the dryer machine is simple. They just blow the hot air from the wood based HAG to dry the fibre. The capacity of the dryer machine is 500 kg per hour. A) CALCULATIONS Cost of the dryer machine = Rs 4,00,000 Capacity required = 1000 kg per hour approx So, no of dryer machines required = = = 2 machines Total cost of the machine = Rs 8,00,000 Inventory cost = Rs 1,10,000 Loan of amount Rs 8,00,000 at 10 percent interest rate for 3 years. Amount payable per year = P Amount payable per year = Rs 3,20,000 Excess = Rs 3,20,000 – 1,20,000 = Rs 2,00,000 per year. Now, Total amount paid in excess = 3 X 2,00,000 = Rs 6,00,000 Once the loan is repaid the amount the organisation earlier spend on inventory can deposited yearly to get the amount spent on machine. Amount = Amount = Rs 1,20,000 F = Rs 6,00,000 ===? number of years is 4.2 years. So, which clearly shows that the organisation can easily get back the amount spend on machine in 4.2 years without disturbing their actual process. In fact, the inventory area can even be given for rent which will increase the profit of the organisation. There are also several other advantages, ? Damage due to storage can be reduced. ? Inventory area for rent. B) DEMERITS: ? Breakdown of machines ? Uncertainties C) REJECTION Initial rejection (use of manual method) = 3 per 100 pieces Present rejection (use of dryer machine) = 1 per 500 pieces That is a step towards lean six sigma. Further improvement can still bring down the number of defects. IX. CONTROL PHASE Drying of coir is ensured twice before it is taken in to next process. Dryer machine is maintained prop