Abstract— It is widely acknowledged that cloud computing has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry includes small and large enterprises, these enterprises has many issues regarding cloud computing adoption. Issues surrounding the adoption of cloud computing have received relatively little attention. Drawing on two research papers of, this study will contribute to the existing cloud technologies literature that does not address the complex and multifaceted nature of adoption. The findings are analyzed using the original themes of these researches, organizational and environmental factors impact cloud adoption required the level of different managerial resources.
To have a better control application migration the cloud provider involves different layers. These layers have many architectural issues. The paper is about to solve these layers issues. The conclusion reveals that factors impacting cloud adoption tend to be psychological as well as technical and some recommendations are put forward for future research.
The proposed solution calls upon cryptography, specifically Public Key Infrastructure operating in concert with SSO and LDAP, to ensure the authentication, integrity and confidentiality of involved data and communications.Keywords: Cloud Computing, IT adoption, Diffusion of Innovation (DOI), Technology-Organizational-environment (TOE).INTRODUCTIONIn present information technology era cloud computing is major advancement towards today’s business needs. The term “cloud” emerged from telecommunications in the early 1990s, when virtual private network (VPN) services were established for data communications. Those networks allowed for dynamic routing and balanced utilization – resulting in increased bandwidth efficiency in the “telecom cloud.” Today’s cloud computing technology is very similar, essentially providing an environment that is dynamically allocated to meet organization/user needs. Cloud computing makes it easier for firms or individual business functions to establish new services without managing or owning computer resources. It is a convenient means to avoid capital expenditures through a shift to operating expenditures.
Initiatives – which would previously not fit the capital expenditure ceiling – are becoming economically feasible. Moreover, computing resources are scalable and can be easily be adjusted to fluctuating business needs; consumption is charged on a per-use-base 1. We suggest that firms that perceive a higher relative advantage from cloud computing are more likely to adopt itFurthermore, a few of the mechanisms involved in cloud adoption have been well studied. Amongst them, flexibility, qualitative product and the possibility to get a cheaper solution than in-house products have already been studied.
Now days there are three major services are being provided via cloud, from which Software as a Service is most valuable and cheaper in economic concerns. As cloud policy about software as a service relay upon pay as you go. CLOUD SERVICE MODELSCloud services are being provided in three major service models. Which are described and illustrated in figure.1Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)Virtual machine services accessed over the network, providing compute and/or storage capabilitiesPlatform-as-a-Service (PaaS) Platform software services (such as web, application, database servers, enterprise service buses and other middleware, with associated security mechanisms) on which web service-based applications can be builtPlatform-as-a-Service (PaaS) Applications provided as a service from the cloud, with end-user licenses procured or “released” in line with changing demand. ` Figure.
1aDOPTION OF CLOUD COMPUTTINGAn enterprise moving to a cloud based solution can expect many challenges and benefits. Thorough research and consideration must be performed to ensure that concerns such as data security is properly understood and addressed.Benefits and challenges of three cloud computing Service Models. Joel Gibson, Darren Eveleigh 2 In this research paper they explained the deployment models according to requirement and needs. Benefits of different models for different organizations according to their size. They recommended that Understanding the cloud service models is critical in determining if cloud services or hosting are an appropriate business solution, and if so, which model best balances the level of control required versus reduced hardware, configuration, and maintenance costs 2. In their research paper they have compared many solution providers of cloud computing as a protection providing company, discussed named Mozy which provide Laptop, PC, protection.
It deals with Pay-as-You Go.Conclusion of their research is for adopting cloud for your organization it is highly recommended to know your needs and infrastructure that needs to be hired. But there research dose not conclude the legal/Security issues related to cloud computing.FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY, Morgan, Lorraine, Lero; Conboy, Kieran 3. In this research they have concluded the factors which are affecting the adoption of cloud. Research is based on this questions.1.
What technological factors impact the adoption of cloud computing? 2. What organizational factors impact the adoption of cloud computing? 3. What environmental factors impact the adoption of cloud computing. Answers are based on reviews by many industry specialists. By surveying different companies they have maintained different views. Like Adopting cloud systems represents a shift in organizational norms and culture.
One organizational factor that impacts cloud adoption is the IT managers’ fear of ‘losing control of their IT environment’. For example, the project manager at NDC explained that IS/IT managers like to be in control of data and services, thus there is a perception among them that ‘if it isn’t broke, don’t fix it’ in terms of cloud adoption. Similarly, the CEO at Almir pointed out, “IT managers in a company tend to be very protective and sometimes overly protective of what’s there. And in some ways you know overprotective but there isn’t an ounce that you can do about it”. According to several study participants, the massive transition to cloud may result in many IT managers’ jobs becoming obsolete in a few years. Nonetheless, service providers in this study believed that there are still tremendous opportunities for IS/IT managers, if they adjust their skills and capabilities to suit the cloud landscape.
To review and compare it with other researches we can assume that this research is in a better prospective as it deals with real world factors that are actually affecting the cloud computing implementation directly. In this research they describe how old fashioned IT manager, It Professional are afraid of adopting cloud computing. Which means proper education of cloud computing must be given to all of them and new technologies must be adopted. different frame worksTwo theories are commonly used in innovation diffusion and adoption studies in Organizations. They are the diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory and the TOE Framework. Other popular theories such as the technology acceptance model (TAM), theory of Planned behavior (TPB) and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) are not considered in this research as they pertain. Tiago Oliveira Manoj Thomas Mariana Espadanal4.
Diffusion of innovation (DOI)DOI is a prominent adoption model used in Information Systems (IS) research. It proposes five attributes that explain the adoption of innovation in an organization. They are: 1) relative advantage, the extent to which an innovation is better than the previous generation; 2) compatibility, the degree to which an innovation can be assimilated into the existing business processes, practices, and value systems; 3) complexity, the level of difficulty to use the innovation; 4) observe ability, extent to which the innovation is visible to others; and 5) trial ability, the ease of experimenting with the innovation. DOI is predominantly based on the characteristics of the technology and the users’ perceptions of the innovation. An organization is a more complex entity than an individual.
Here, Rogers suggests that innovation is a communication process using the various channels within the social system. Three factors influence the adoption of innovation in organizations. They are individual (leadership attitude toward change), internal organizational structure (centralization, complexity, interconnectedness, number of employees, and the organizational slack), and external characteristics (system openness) of the organization. Tiago Oliveira Manoj Thomas Mariana Espadanal4.
Technology-organization-environment (TOE) frameworkTornatzky and Fleischer proposed the TOE framework to explain the process of innovation in the context of an enterprise. It considers three features of an enterprise that influence the adoption of innovation – technology, organization, and environment contexts. The technology context refers to the internal and external technology relevant to the organization, and the technologies that are available for possible adoption. The organization context refers tothe descriptive characteristics of the firm (i.e., organizational structure, firm size, managerial structure, degree of centralization), resources (human and slack resources), and process of communication (formal and informal) among employees.
The environment context comprises of the market elements, competitors, and the regulatory environment .Migrating a data cenetr into the cloudCloud means the environment of cloud where the cloud services are being operatedAdoption term states that accepting the services of new technologyAdoption term means following some kinds of new trend or existing trend or a technologyAdoption is suitable for low priority business applicationsCloud adoption is useful when the recovery management, backup recovery based information are requiredThe adoption of cloud is therefore not just an IT issue, it is of concern to and impacts all parts of the businessImpact on the people(changing on regular basis, servers and storage)How important to automate the things (managing software’s: write things and store things)Misconception about data (access of your data, make people nervous, it’s yours, you pay for it)Phases of cloud adoptionStrategic phase(CEO and Senior management)Vision Term of referenceGuidelines Tactical phase(CIO and CTO)Business analysisTechnical analysisOperational phase(IT and Finance)ProcurementImplementationOperations Identify applicable sponsor/s here. If no sponsors, delete this text box (sponsors).Practical approach for secure cloud adoptionKeeping applications and data safe when migrating them to the cloud can be challenging, but it’s not impossible.
You need to know your exact requirements.Why you are migratingClear idea of how the solution should be designed and delivered to reduce riskKeeping it simpleTaking a uniform approachMoving fasterSpecify , engage and demandDefine your approach to cloud computing from business case to strategy and change management to technology.Build a solid foundation for your enterprise workloads on AWS by assessing and validating your application portfolio, and integrating your unique IT environment with solutions based on AWS cloud services.Design and optimize your business applications to be cloud-aware, taking direct advantage of the benefits of AWS services.
Meet your internal and external compliance requirements by developing and implementing automated security policies and controls based on proven, validated designs.Challenges for cloud adoptionStandardizeLower costIncrease performanceReduce complexityConsolidateRelease assetsImprove efficiencyImprove management and controlVirtualizedLower costIncrease utilizationHigher flexibilityAutomateLower costImprove user experienceSpeed to marketOrchestrateDynamically aligned to the businessSelf adaptingEnetrprise cloud adoption fram workEffective enterprise cloud requires standardization in both infrastructure and apps platform.Snowflake systemIt focused on individual app customers Each system hand-tuned to requirements Expensive and slow to build and change.VM SprawlMore than lack of governance Total flexibility of VM contents equates to continue snowflake systems.Cloud SprawlCloud vendors are pushing enterprise hard to achieve elastic infrastructure, while idea for agility and utilization of infrastructure, elastic infrastructure alone ignores the platform diversity problemElastic PaasPaas vendors are pushing enterprises hard to adopt elastic platform Silicon Valley Paas is not ready for enterprise. Rewrites and re-architecture are required for modern complex enterprise appsEnterprise PaasEnterprise Paas means standardized, on demand platform stacks using today’s active app architecturesThis enables dramatically better app delivery and business outcomes without app and architecture rewritesTransformation begin hereDon’t adopt cloud without explicit intent to standardizeOrganize cloud projects around infrastructure and application standardization effortsDon’t let the details of cloud bog down the high level initiativesKey features of the cloud computin Adoption frameworkIdentifies two primary dimensions to be considered when developing a cloud computing strategy Identifies key differentiated capabilities along those two dimensions.Identifies key competencies and considerations to successfully deliver and consume cloud services at the intersections defined by the differentiated points.Aligns capabilities required with each stage of adoptionConclusionIn this paper I have conducted systematic literature review on cloud adoption in organizations.
The contribution of this work is thus twofold. First, I identified and categorized challenges and issues of cloud adoption in organizations. The contribution to the field is directions for the future research on cloud adoption, supporting overall development and adoption of cloud.
I provide practitioners with recommendations regarding development and adoption of cloud services. This review offers valuable insights for both cloud service providers and organizations considering adopting the technology.ReferencesK.
Won, “Cloud computing: today and tomorrow,” Journal of Object Technology, vol. 8, pp. 65-72, 2009. Benefits and Challenges of Three Cloud Computing Service Models.
Joel Gibson, Darren Eveleigh.FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY, Morgan, Lorraine, Lero; Conboy, Kieran.Assessing the determinants of cloud computing adoption. Tiago Oliveira Manoj Thomas Mariana Espadanal, pp. 05, 2014.a systematic study on cloud migration, Rashmi Rai1*, Gadadhar Sahoo1 and Shabana Mehfuz2.