A walls, flooring, roofing and beams. The purpose will


A building
consists of two major parts a sub structure and a super structure.

Sub-structure is the core of any building. It is the
lower part of the specified building which would usually be found beneath
ground. Its main purpose is to receive and support the load from the main part
of the building (the superstructure), and transfer them down to the layer of
ground beneath it which can bear the entire load. The main section of the
sub-structure is the foundation, which is what bears the load and transfers it
to the ground. Therefore, measuring the soil for the correct foundation is very
important        as in the situation of wrong measurement and
calcs this will result in the foundation ultimately failing its purpose as it
isn’t able to handle the loadSuper-structure is the main region of the building
which sits on the foundation, the substructure above ground level. It consists
of columns, walls, flooring, roofing and beams. The purpose will be defined by
the client. The measurements for the main building directly affect the
foundation.As mentioned
above, it is very important to have the correct measurements for the soil to
construct the correct foundation. This is also important because it has an
impact on the method used to create the foundation, as well as other factors
such as project budget which in turn affects the materials used, the
contractors hired to construct and consultants hired to supervise and guide
along the project’s lifetime. Moreover, gathering the correct soil measurements
allows the client’s project team to identify the best way to ensure ground
stability, temporarily during the construction process, and permanently, for
the buildings lifetime.Many methods can
be used. In the modern era Our time sees much more efficient planning than
before when it comes to determining the best method to use to create
sub-structures. The most common technique used nowadays is piling systems.  The reason why it is called piling systems is
because there are different piling techniques that can be used to construct a
substructure and I will highlight the two different piling techniques and some
of their types.

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piles, also known as
displacement piles, are a commonly-used form of building foundation that
provide support for structures, transferring their load to layers of soil or
rock that have sufficient bearing capacity and suitable settlement
characteristics. Driven piles are commonly used to support buildings, tanks,
towers, walls and bridges, and can be the most cost-effective deep foundation
solution. They can also be used in applications such as embankments, retaining
walls, bulkheads, anchorage structures and cofferdams. The piles are driven
into the using pile drivers, which are of different types diesel hammer,
hydraulic hammer, piling rig, vibratory hammer or a drop hammer. As shown below 

 https://theconstructor.org/geotechnical/pile-driving-equipment-types-uses/17605/ Driven
foundations are of two types:

Pile foundation systems: 
Pile foundations are deep foundations. They are formed by long, slender,
columnar elements typically made from steel or reinforced concrete, or
sometimes timber.Pile
foundations are principally used to transfer the loads from superstructures,
through weak, compressible strata or water onto stronger, more compact, less
compressible and stiffer soil or rock at depth, increasing the effective size
of a foundation and resisting horizontal loads. They are typically used for
large structures, and in situations where soil is not suitable to prevent
excessive settlement. An example is shown below. 

https://www.onlinecivilforum.com/site/index.php/2016/09/10/pile-foundation/https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Pile_foundationsMono-pile foundations: The mono-pile structure is a simple
design where the tower is supported by the mono-pile. This will usually
continue all the way down into the seabed. The pile depth within the seabed can
be adjusted to suit the conditions. Mono-piles are a common use for foundations
in the offshore wind market. Well suited for sites with a water depth of 30m
and less. An example is shown below.


Drilled Piles: Also known as Cassions, they used
rotary boring machinery that drills the pile beneath the ground, commonly
drilling rigs are used. Parallel to driven piles, drilled piles use the same
materials but install them in a different way. The piling technique, however,
varies depending on the site geology. For instance, if the soil was wet, the
technique would be Wet-Boring and if it was dry, the technique would be Dry-Boring.
Drilled piles are of two types:

Under Reamed Piles: This type of drilled piling uses
mechanically produced large bases which increases the amount of bearing the
base can handle and shift to the underlying soil. These bulb or bell shaped
bases can have diameters of up to 6 metres and they are best suited for black
cotton soil as well as expansive soils which have different moisture levels in
different seasons.Auger Piles: This type of pilling is a good
reflection of how it works as its name suggests; Auger means to drill and that
is how this works. The auger, drill, has a stem in the middle and it is drilled
into the soil until the required depth. It is then slowly withdrawn from the
excavation taking all of the drilled rocks and soil out and pumping a concrete
mix via the stem into the excavation. This process is done carefully so that
the concrete pressure does not cause the soil to crack or deform. Once the
concrete foundation is in place, reinforced concrete is fitted into the
then-wet concrete and it is left to dry. This technique is very good as it can
resist large loads and it used to support towers, bridges and other different
building types.Ground StabilisationIt is important
to understand that no site work can start without the area being surveyed. This
initial step is crucial simply due to the fact that the soil (ground) where the
building is to be constructed has to be stable enough to carry the building on
its surface. Making sure that the ground is stable should be the first thing
that should be focussed on before choosing the type of excavation to be used.
Reinforcing the soil not only makes the ground stable to erect the building, it
also enables the ground to become pedestrian pavements, roads, railway tracks
and also the strengthening of the soil also allows for underpasses and utility
services to pass under the building.There are two
ways of stabilising the soil; the first is by disposing the material found on
the site and importing stronger materials. The second is by stabilising the
existing site soil with binders, which are materials which strengthen or hold
materials together such as lime and cement. 
The first method is rarely used in today’s day and age is at costs a lot
of time and money plus it is not as effective as the second method, which is
faster, cheaper and heavily used.A land filling
heavy machine is brought on site and it digs up the soil where the foundations
are to be placed. The soil is then mixed with a cement-lime mixture and the
soil is levelled out. It is left to dry and after it is checked for its
strength using stabilisation calculation methods; if the soil has become an
impermeable site work commences, if it hasn’t, it is further strengthened to a
satisfactory level. The advantages of using this method are:

saves money by mixing binding materials in-situ instead of prefabricating
materials and importing them to the siteIt
saves time since less transportation of materials will be required and the soil
will stabilise over a shorter period of timeIt
is greener since less earthmoving equipment will be involved since there will
no heavy and continuous transport of strengthened materials to the site and
removal of unwanted materials from the siteIt
saves waste due to the fact the already-existing material is used and
strengthened instead of dumping all of it from the site and importing
manufactured materials. 


The main reason
of preparing any budget is to be cost effective by controlling unneeded costs.
A budget plan must be created with team or consultants to aid him/her on this
matter. However, the consultant must bear in mind that the client is seeking to
lower and tighten the budget to save costs.

projects are assigned with a budget for hiring the contractors, purchasing the
materials and for emergencies and with a time-scale by which the project has to
be completed. In this project, there hasn’t been an assigned budget and
time-scale however the process has to be quick but also one which makes sure
that the building is made of a high quality and safe. In order to achieve this,
aspects of the project must be considered. this include materials which are to
be used as the foundations, services, site access, the type of excavation to be
used, and etc. However, the focus is the actual construction and specifically
the sub-structure, foundation, as it is the beginning on which the
super-structure will be founded.

The basement will
most likely be constructed in an area that won’t require the strengthening of
the soil before excavating. This means that there will no extra costs for such
services. The excavation can begin straight away as there will be no waiting
for the soil to dry up after strengthening it. Another thing to bear in mind is,
given the fact that the construction site is most likely on a residential
street. There is a high likeliness of existing utility services that have to be
considered. The fear would be that the existing utility tunnels would have to
be diverted, or avoided before the construction can commence hence adding to
the cost and duration of the project.

In terms of
excavations, one of the most common types of excavating is piling, it proves to
be cheaper but not as time-saving as the diaphragm wall. The diaphragm wall
technique costs more as it uses more concrete than the piling method would use
but uses less machinery so the price difference somewhat levels out. The
diaphragm wall technique controls ground stability and groundwater levels more
effectively than piling as it produces a strong layer above the soil. Also,
diaphragm walls use tubes that are temporary structures and are reusable,
recyclable and they can be easily removed to be replaced with the concrete for
the main structure. It works by excavating the soil into trenches, pumping
slurry into the trench to support the soil and make it water resistant, placing
the walls at fixed intervals, pouring concrete into the gaps between the walls,
reinforcing the concrete with steel frame and then removing the slurry from the
walls. The picture below shows the excavation process of the diaphragm walls.




This basement will
obviously be below the super-structure, the top-down construction technique
should be used. The top-down construction method allows for the construction of
a basement using the same foundations the super-structure uses and this is very
cost effective and time-saving as the permanent retaining diaphragm wall
becomes the walls of the basement and its ceiling. How the top-down
construction level works is by excavating the soil to build the ground floor of
the super-structure while leaving a shallow excavated gap in the middle to
allow the basement to be erected. Once the ground floor is built, through the
shallow excavated gap, reinforcement materials slabs and beams are lowered and
are installed into their locations. After this step, another excavation trench
is dug beneath the shallow gap and the reinforcement concrete is installed.
Once all the lower levels have been constructed, the parking spots and paving
are set out.


Underground Tunnels

Regarding the
construction of the basement, we could use existing underground. For example,
if the construction location is most likely in London, the existing London
Underground Tunnels will have to be considered as well all the existing utility
service tunnels but if the construction location is within the cross country,
the main and only concern would be the existing utility service tunnels as
there is no underground rail or surface transport. It is important to note that
utility pipes are not always tunnelled but are sometimes protected with extra
layers of soil and water penetration-preventing materials. With this in mind,
in the chosen location, there are existing underground tunnels and what needs
to considered is the significant vibration the excavation process will cause
which could potentially damage the tunnels causing their collapse and a stop to
the service that was being provided. By identifying the existing services, the
excavators can use mitigating techniques such as pre-boring driven holes which
is a method which uses less impact energy when driving foundations into the
ground or using a completely different foundation design.

Since I have
suggested that the Diaphragm method should be used this is in itself a complete
alternative to affecting the existing tunnels. They should be installed a
decent amount away from any existing tunnels to avoid damaging nearby buildings.
If the Diaphragm method which involves digging the soil using an excavator to
the desired depth, then filling the excavation with slurry to make it water
impermeable, then filling the excavation with concrete and lowering
pre-fabricated steel into the concrete for reinforcement.





Drainage is the
natural or artificial channelling of water away from one place to another,
usually the central sewage network. In this railway project, water will be used
during the construction process to remove dust, produce cement etc. This all
means that removal of water from the site is needed and this can only be done
by the correct construction of drain pipes and the diagram below shows an
overview of the construction method.


(Upland Pathwork, 2015)



To construct the
drainage pipe, the operatives should excavate a trench that is wide and long
enough to fit the pipe and should be deep enough to be able to close it off as
shown. Following this, the pipe should be assembled to the required length, and
it should be careful positioned by a crane into the excavation. This should be
accompanied with constructing the walls to protect the pipe by placing the
bedding for the pipe at its base and its sides. Aggregate should then be poured
over and around the pipe so that it is covered by it and this acts as a water impermeable
membrane and a protection layer for the pipe and finally connect the building’s
drainage to the surrounding sewers and restore the backfill from the excavated
trench to cover up the drain pipe.


Culverts are
structures that allow the flow of water underneath a road, bridge, railway or
any similar construction and are usually designed from concrete, plastic or
steel. They can be shaped in different ways  

Depending on the
area it will placed and the load it will carry. This project will see the use
of a lot of water during construction and so to allow the water to flow towards
the drainage pipes, culverts will be used to access the site to prevent heavy
machinery and operatives from coming into contact with construction-produced
and to prevent any site flooding.

https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwi-27Xr3OzYAhWCwBQKHddJAi0QjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Ftheconstructor.org%2Fconstruction%2Fconstruction-of-culverts-minor-bridges-siting%2F16963%2F&psig=AOvVaw06Kzw8FYGc9B4jlvwsf1L7&ust=1516750117644631To construct the
culvert as shown above, the soil will be excavated using an excavator and a
truck will remove the excavated soil from the site. Gravel will then be lined
in the excavation to act as bedding for the culvert pipe and its surrounding
walls. The precast concrete pipes will then be fitted into the excavation on
top of the gravel with the help of a crane and will then be treated with a
waterproof membrane, to make it resistant. Following this, more gravel will be
used to cover the culvert and the excavated material will then be backfilled on
top of the culvert and the access road to the site will be placed. The inlet
section is the side of culvert that leads to the construction site and it is
where the water flows down towards the outlet which is where the drainage pipes
take the water away from the construction site.

Culverts lead to changes in community composition
over the length of the culvert because of the abrupt changes in light conditions
and stream bed. Culverts can either impede or facilitate upstream movement. The
barrier effect of culverts does not have an effect on communities either side
of culverts.



An underpass, or
a subway, is a path beneath roads or railways which allows cyclists and
pedestrian to walk across safely without the risk of coming into contact with
road or rail traffic, having underpasses help moving from one site area to
another safely.

To construct a
subway, precast reinforced concrete sections should be used. An excavation
should be dug deep enough, and filled with aggregate to prevent water flow into
the concrete walls and damage them.  The
concrete panels will be precast into a U-shape and will be held together by
binding materials as well as bolts and nuts in their metal parts. The concrete
U-shape subway is then lowered into the excavation with the help of a crane and
its surroundings are strengthened with concrete. Once this has taken place,
sheet piles are drilled besides the U-shape subway to build the roads on top of
the subway which are then held in place by reinforced concrete columns placed
at regular intervals. Finally, retaining walls are installed beside the subway
to prevent soil collapse and destroy the subway.