A unfamiliar associations. He believed that criminals are, overwhelmingly,

A problem arises however, when deciding
what is expected to deter others, Bentham and more recently Walker, suggest
that an appropriate action is to set penalties to outweigh the benefits of
committing an offence, however this relies on the premise that those who commit
crimes are rational thinkers and that are responsible for their actions. This
premise however, causes conflict as to whether or not criminals are in fact
rational within their actions or whether crime is in fact an act of impulse.

For sadistic murders who slaughter their victims, they lack an understanding for
human suffering which is inherently a part of our nature. In March 1998 Arthur
Shawcross murdered 13 women by asphyxiation. His case has raised serious
questions on what causes extreme violence and what we understand about the
nature of evil itself. Shawcross was socially challenged and spent much of his
time alone, he had a troubled childhood and a history of petty criminality. The
brutal physical abuse he had suffered as a child, became suggestive of some
kind of brain injury. He discussed falling on his head from the top of a
40-foot ladder which damaged one temporal lobe on both frontal lobes. The neurologist
Jonathan Pincus observed that people with frontal lobe damage cannot cope with
situations where there are no rules, where they have to improvise and make
unfamiliar associations. He believed that criminals are, overwhelmingly, people
with both problems- with abusive childhoods and brain injuries, that somehow
these factors in combination create such terrifying synergy that normal
neurological functioning is profoundly altered

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