A demand, load and power generation remain balanced; stressing

A smart city is a new concept of cities that
apply the new generation of information communication technologies (Smart ICT), such as the Internet-of-Things, cloud computing,
big data, to improve and manage the planning, construction and smart services of
cities. Developing Smart Cities can benefit synchronized development,
industrialization, information sharing, urbanization and agricultural
modernization and sustainability of cities development. The utility power
system in smart City is  highly  energy  and  resource
 efficient,  and  is   increasingly  powered
 by  renewable  energy   sources; it relies on
integrated and resilient  resource  systems,  as  well
 as  insight-driven   and  innovative  approaches
 to  strategic  planning. The application of information and
communication technologies is commonly a means to meet these objectives. One of
the major components of smart cities’ utility power system is the smart grid.
The smart grid is an electrical grid including a variety of operational and
energy measures such as smart meters, smart appliances and allows the
integration of various power generation resources.


As reported by the Energy Information
Administration, the energy provided by fossil fuels accounts for 62% of the
total global energy consumption, 38% worldwide energy generation comes from
renewables energies. Furthermore, the worldwide energy consumption is expected
to increase 82% in the following decade. With
the increasing concerns about climate change the interest in integrating
renewable resources into the smart grid increases. As these renewable energy
sources might be highly intermittent in nature and often uncontrollable, they
could produce a significant challenge for the reliability of the grid. It is
therefore a  challenging  task  to  guarantee  that  the
 power  demand,  load and power generation remain balanced;
stressing the need for standardised power allocation and dynamic pricing
schemes. There are many challenges and opportunities of emerging and future
smart grids and smart cities, which can be addressed by means of cloud
computing. For instance, dynamic energy pricing, i.e., shifting the potential
peak demand to a different time when the energy price is lower. A cloud-based
platform will be instrumental in minimizing network complexity and providing
cost-effective solutions as well as increasing the utilization of energy. Smart
grid and smart city services/applications may be deployed in various ways, such
as in a private cloud, community cloud, or hybrid cloud.

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As a step into this direction, we study dynamic pricing
strategies for brokering, which will be implemented on the cloud service, based
upon data collected from smart meters to help the users make the best selection
with the energy resources from different energy retailers. In this dynamic
pricing scheme, more  than  one  energy  retailer is
considered and for each retailer, the price  for  the users  can
 be  adjusted  dynamically  depending on the current energy
demand  and  prices  offered  by the other retailers in
each region; in order to achieve the highest individual or combined revenue. The
users’ energy demand changes  with  the  price  to
 maximize  their  individual  utility, and  users
 might  choose  different  retailers  based  on
the  provided  prices. The brokering will choose the lowest cost of energy
resources based on clients’ energy usage demand in real time. Dynamic pricing
aims at reducing the overall energy consumption, the capacity of end use
customers to change their electricity usage  from  their  normal
 or  current  consumption  patterns  in  response
 to  market  signals is   mainly   about
  shifting   consumption   to   a
  different   point   in  time.


Furthermore, during the analysis, we have come to know that
standardization in the area of metering and billing lags behind research.
Therefore, in our study we focus on researching the market requirements for
cloud service metering and billing to highlight and determine gaps between
industry practices, market requirements and current technical standardisation
efforts at ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38 committee in order to  pave the way to
establishing standards in metering indicators and billing principles for cloud
services this while keeping in mind privacy and data protection risks and
regulations enforced by ISO JT1/SC 27 and EU General Data Protection Regulation
effective May 2018.


Key words: Smart Cities, Smart Meter, Dynamic Pricing,
Technical Standardisation, Cloud Computing


This research was conducted in collaboration with ILNAS –
the Institut Luxembourgeois de la Normalisation, de l’Accréditation, de la
Sécurité et qualité des produits et services (ILNAS) under the authority of the
Minister of Economy, Luxembourg.