a)EutrophicationEutrophication or moreprecisely hypertrophication, is a water body enriched withnutrients,with an excess amount of it.Certain nutrients are needed for survival of theliving thing.Primarily,nature is efficient enough to provide right amount ofnutrients,not less nor too much. This is absolutely true in aquatic ecosystemsbecause they are so dynamic.
Water will be oligotrophic if there is too muchnutrient.Consequently,serious problems will occur if there is no nutrients in theaquatic environment of the organisms.However,problems can also occur when there is too much nutrients too. When this occurwe get eutrophication.
A eutrophic stream, river or lake occurs when too many nutrients,suchas nitrogen and phosphorous, are present, usually as a result of overflow ofthe land. Algae, plankton and other microorganisms attracted to these types ofnutrients, and when they are too much these aquatic organisms can take over.When eutrophication occurs in a lake, river or other aquatic system,it gives anegative impact on the organisms itself including humans,birds and fishes.
b)DeforestationClearing of trees or removalof trees from the forest to make it into non-forest is called deforestation andit is also used for urban development.Conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use are also examplesof deforestation.Tropical rainforests are the most commondeforestation area.One of the largest and severe issue in global land is noneother than deforestation.
Croplands and grazing lands are estimated arearegarding deforestation which includes cutting down trees for wood products andso on due to urban usage.Due to this,whole forest is no more and wiped out dueto no more trees left in the forest. In some cases,forest structure would bealtered if illegal logging and so called accidental fire occurs.The practiceof slash-and-burn agriculture isthe major contributor for deforestation.Small-scale farmers clear land producesfor only a few years and then must forests by burning them and then grow cropsin the soils fertilized by theashes.In Southeast Asia such as Indonesia, tropical Africa, and the Americasfor permanent oil palm plantations practiceopen fire burning to clear out the forests. c) Global WarmingTheobserved century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system andits related effects called Global warming commonly known as climate change,The increase of average world temperatures as a result ofwhat is known as the greenhouse effect is global warming too.
Ingreenhouse,certain gases in the atmosphere acts like glass, sunlight is allowedto heat the earth’s surface but it radiates back to the space if we trap theheat. The Earth gets hotter when the greenhouse gases build up in theatmosphere.Consequently,this phenomena is called climate change.Sincethe mid-20th century the Scientist have gathered detailed observations ofvarious weather phenomena(such as temperatures, precipitation,and storms) and of related influences on climate (suchas oceancurrents and the atmosphere’s chemical composition).Earth’s climate indicated that it has changedover almost every conceivable timescale since the beginning of time and thatthe influence of human activitiessince at least the beginning of the IndustrialRevolution has been deeply contributed to the climatechange.
d) Ozone depletionOzone is very importantand crucial to us and gives us the pros and cons.Asa result of many chemical reaction regarding air pollution which caused byheavy traffic and UV light formed ozone near the ground which eventually causeda lot of respiratory problems particularly for children and the elderly.However,the stratosphere,ozone filters out incoming radiation from the Sun in the cell-damaging ultraviolet (UV)part of the spectrum are known as high up in the atmosphere in a region.Life onearth would not have evolved in the way it has without this ozone layer.Single-celled organisms such as algae thatmake up the bottom rung of the food chain inhibits the reproductive cycle ofphytoplankton with the help of extra UV B radiation shone onto Earth.The onlything fears the Biologist is that reductions in other animals due to low numberof phytoplankton..
Excess ultraviolet B.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicalsfound mainly in sprayaerosols heavilyused by industrialized nations for much of the past 50 years, are the primaryculprits in ozone layer breakdown which ultimately causes the change in the reproductiverates of young fish, shrimp, and crabs as well as frogs and salamanders.UVbreaks down into substance such as chlorine due to CFC in the upper atmosphereexposed to UV.Chlorine reacts with the oxygen particle and tears down the ozone.e)PollutionWhen pollutants contaminate the naturalsurroundings; which changes our normal lifestyles quickly is called pollution.Ourecosystem and the balance in the environment are disturbed due to pollution. Pollutionoccurs in Different forms of pollution can be found such as air, water, soil,radioactive, noise, heat/ thermal and light.There are two sources of pollutionoccurrence; the point and the non-point sources.
The non-point sources are hardto control whereas the point sources are easier to identify,monitor and control.Firstly,Air pollutionis a contamination of natural air with dangerous gases.It is one of the majorcontributor to environmental pollution. Landpollution occurs due to excess of dumping of toxic waste.
This can be achemical or other waste material.Sound pollution calledas noise pollution is a disturbance of silent environment with loudnoises.Radiation pollution is the pollution due to abnormalradiation in the environment. This occurs due to use of radioactive elementsfrom atomic energy stations.
Thermal pollution arises becauseof excess heat from thermal power plants,industries involved in metal molding.Water pollution is mainly aboutharmful toxic substances thrown by ignorant humans or released as residue byirresponsible companies.In other cases,ships release their unwanted oil intothe sea.f) Acid depositionAny other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, elevated levels of hydrogen ions(low pH) is known as Aciddeposition.Plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure had negative impacts dueto acid deposition.Emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react withthe water molecules in the atmosphere to produceacids is called acid deposition.
Wet and dry are the two types of deposition.Rain, snow, fog, hailor even dust that is acidic are included in the type of acid deposition.Dry deposition consist of acidicparticles and gases from atmosphere in the absence of moisture.Duringatmospheric the acidic particles and gases may deposit to surfaces (waterbodies, vegetation, buildings) quickly or may react to form larger particlesthat can be harmful to human health. This acidic water flows over and throughthe ground, and can harm plants and wildlife, such as insects and fish when theaccumulated acids are washed off a surface by the next rain.The amount ofrainfall an area receives depends on the amount of acidity in the atmosphere thatdeposits to earth through dry deposition.For instance,the ratio of dry to wetdeposition is higher than an area that receives several inches of rain each yearin the desert areas.