Recognition of the degrading freshwater
conditions has called for increased efforts to improve the ecological quality
of impacted river, particularly in areas where studies have not been taken
place, despite suffering from a significant impact of human pressure. The highly diverse, water resources like Kamala
river in Sindhuli district is continuously being affected by the anthropogenic
interventions. With the intensification of an urbanization and population-growth,
the reliance on attaining riverine ecosystem services has increased
tremendously escalating into the deterioration of freshwater conditions. Thus,
ensuring the health of aquatic ecosystem and identifying the current ecological
status from the detrimental effects of anthropocentric and environmental contaminants
can be facilitated by integrating chemical analysis with the biological
indices. Macroinvertebrates have been utilized to evaluate water-quality and
assess the aquatic macro-invertebrate diversity. The physico-chemical features
of Kamala river were also assessed using physico-chemical parameters
in combination with macroinvertebrate composition and diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener,
Simpson and Margalef’s). The assessment of taxonomic composition showed 744
individuals of macro-invertebrates belonging to 36 families and 10 orders. The
analysis of Physico-chemical parameters recorded with a low
concentration of nutrients and high dissolved Oxygen (DO),
presented mesosaprobic (Moderately Polluted) ecological status in
Kamala river. Sensitive species such as Ephemeroptera and Diptera were found in
abundance. These findings are indicative of perturbed systems whose severity
seems to be driven by the large extent of anthropogenic activities along the
Kamala river basin. In addition, the presence of diverse macroinvertebrate
presents suitable heterogeneous-habitat and reflects moderately-polluted
riverine ecosystem. The outcome of this study also invites remediation to Since
this is the 1st and the only scientific study conducted in
Kamala river, this research would serve as baseline data for water quality of
these water bodies and contributes to a better understanding of the present riverine