2Table eye movements and how it impacts various response

2Table of Contents1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32 Understanding visual communication ……………………………………………………………………………………… 32.1 Visual perception (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32.2 Visual perception (2) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53 Visualizing data …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83.1 Data journalism storyboard …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115 References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1231 IntroductionThis report contains two main chapters where each one of them is based on a different area of interest. The first chapter, Understanding visual communication refers mainly to the theoretically part of how the visual perception works from different perspectives, as well as the relation between visual perception and attenion, eye movements, actions and emotions. The second chapter, mainly consists in creating a data journalism storyboard from a given dataset, where techniques and the chart types used will be explain.2 Understanding visual communicationIn the following sub-chapters I will try to explain how the human visual system works from a functional and neurobiological perspective and also how the modularity of mind thesis fits in. Furthermore, I will define how the visual perception relates to attention and eye movements and how it impacts various response tendencies.2.1 Visual perception (1)Give an overview of the human visual system from both a functional perspective (i.e., what the visual system does) and a neurobiological perspective (i.e., how the visual system is physically implemented in the brain). How does the modularity of mind thesis fit in?To better understand how the human eye works, it is good to know that this has seven main parts: lens, iris, cornea, pupil, ciliary muscle, retina and optic nerve. Each of these parts has its own function in the process of seeing. Light rays entering the eye are first bent inwards by the cornea. The light rays pass through the pupil and are focused by the lens so that a sharp image is formed on the retina at the back of the eye. The function of lens is to focus the image on the retina, the iris controls the amount of the light that enters the eye, the ciliary muscle is responsible to change the shape of the lens, retina has the role to hold the light sensitive cells and form the image, while the optic nerve has to send messages back to the brain.1The human visual system converts the pattern of light that falls on the retina into perception. This involves a transformation of the visual image in several dimensions like: color vision, shape, pattern or depth perception. In all cases, the basic job of the visual system is to recognize1 Barratt, D.H. (1972). Light (Discovering science). World Pub4objects and their position in space. It is not unlikely that sometimes this may lead to an illusion (Ponzo illusion) – objects may appear longer or shorter depending of the perspective as they are shown. The initial processing of the image takes place in the retina. The retina projects to four nuclei, with different functions:? the lateral geniculate nucleus, for perception of objects? the superior colliculus, for control of eye movements? the pretectum, for control of the pupil? the suprachiasmatic nucleus, for control of diurnal rhythms and hormonal changes2.The optic nerve, a cable–like grouping of nerve fibers, connects and transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. The optic nerve is mainly composed of retinal ganglion cell axons. In the brain, the optic nerve transmits vision signals to the lateral geniculate nucleus, where visual information is relayed to the visual cortex (cortical region responsible for the detailed processing of visual information – starting with V1 and V2) of the brain that converts the image impulses into objects that we see.3Reflecting on the “Modularity of mind” by J.Fodor (1983) which suggests that we resurrect faculty psychology and we create a version of Gall and Spurzheim’s phrenology, the point he articulates is that we need to think of the mind as a distinct set of units or modules, each of which is complete in itself, fully devoted to a specific function. According to Fodor, such modular systems are domain specific, encapsulated, obligatory, have shallow outputs, are rapid, are generally inaccessible to consciousness except at their outputs, have a characteristic ontogenetic course, have dedicated neural hardware, and finally as a consequence, have characteristic patterns of breakdown.Informational encapsulation is the property that is non-negotiable for Fodor as regards whether a system is granted the status of a module. He describes the informational encapsulation of input system as “the essence of their modularity”4. To understand exactly what this property involves we can refer to the previous mentioned Ponzo illusion – This is an example of informational2 Polyak, S. L. (1941). The retina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.3 Jun Lin, James Tsai (2015). The Optic Nerve And Its Visual Link To The Brain. Retrieved from: http://discoveryeye.org/optic-nerve-visual-link-brain/4 J.Fodor (1983). The modularity of mind.5encapsulation – two lines of the same length, will look different at the first sight (without knowledge – fast, automatic perception), but when you know that actually they have the same size and look again at them (knowledge – slow, reflective, globally sensitive perception), the deep output is that they have actually the same length.The visual-input system is “sealed” off from that information or, as Fodor also describes it, visual perception is “cognitively impenetrable” – thoughts and belifes are unable to penetrate the modular visual input system.The general point illustrated by the visual illusions such as the Ponzo illusion – is that the processing in a modular input system is not affected by the information stored in the central systems.2.2 Visual perception (2)How does visual perception relate to attention and eye movements, and/or how does it impact upon various response tendencies (e.g., action and emotion)?Attention implies allocating resources, perceptual or cognitive, to some things at the expense of not allocating them to something else. This definition implies a limit to the resources of an individual such that they cannot attend to everything at once, all the time. In one sense this is clear in that the senses already provide a filter. The visual system, does not tell us about what is happening behind us or in the infrared part of the spectrum. But attention refers to selection from the array of information that is arriving at the brain and is potentially available. Attention can be divided in different types, and some of them are:? Selective attention – At any one time we seem to attend to and be aware of only some aspects of the sensory input. What is selected is sometimes determined by the demands of a particular task. Selective attention is not only activated by interest in a goal. Although it is obvious that we are selectively attending while actively searching for those lost keys, selection is a feature central to the act of seeing anything. It is impossible, with our brain equipment, to process the whole of the retinal image. Selectively attending to something implies that the feature being attended to has already been defined, whether this is a basic attribute such as a color, a visual direction, or an actual object.6? Parsing attention – Attention might be a part of the process of recognizing objects and separating them from their backgrounds. It has been suggested that the act of attending to something is critical to the binding together of the various features that define a perceptual object.? Directing attention – When something happens, a primitive reflex system instinctively orients us towards it. This is an emergency, interrupting system, which overrides normal behavior when something potentially important or dangerous demands immediate analysis. But directing attention is also a gentler, omnipresent drive used for exploring the environment or for maintaining attention on an object while carrying out a task. There might be a continuum between emergency interrupt, normal exploration, and maintaining attention or perhaps these behaviors represent quite different control systems.? Alertness attention – It seems intuitive that a certain level of arousal is necessary for normal perceptual processes to operate. Perception is normally associated with a state of being awake and responsive to sensory input: a state in which behaviors are planned and carried out and in which we are interacting with the environment. Some perception can occur while in a daydream or even while asleep.5Eye movements reflect information sampling in time and space. There are two major functions to the eye, fixation and tracking. Fixation is to position the target object into the fovea. This allows our eyes to maximize the focus we can give to the object. Tracking is the ability to fixate on objects even when they are moving. This is important because most real world objects move, and without the ability to track, we will have a very difficult time perceiving anything. There are six different types of eye movement. Each type of movement serves a different function in visual perception:? Physiological Nystagmus – Physiological nystagmus are tiny, involuntary eye movements that occurs constantly.? Saccadic Movements – Saccadic movements are very rapid, ballistic movements that brings new objects of interest into the fovea.? Smooth Pursuit Movements – Smooth pursuit movements are used to track moving objects. This is an important function because most objects move.5 Mack A. and Rock I. (1998). Inattentional Blindness. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.7? Vergence Movements – Vergence movement’s purpose is to select the distance of the object we want to observe.? Vestibular Movements – The three previous selection eye movements are all used under one condition, when the head is still. Vestibular works together with optokinetic movements to retain the target object on the fovea when the head moves.? Optokinetic Movements – Optokinetic movements work together with vestibular movements. This type of movement only occurs when a large portion of the visual field moves across the retina.Action-specific perception is a psychological theory that people perceive their environment and events within it in terms of their ability to act.6 The action-specific perception account has roots in Gibson’s (1979) ecological approach to perception. “In the real world, an active observer moves through and interacts with the environment.”7 According to Gibson, the primary objects of perception are affordances, which are the possibilities for action. Perception evolved in a natural world full of affordances, but our built environment also has these environmental properties. Stairs, for example, are made of surfaces and materials that have affordances when arranged into steps. Those affordances, when interacting with energy such as light and vibration, uniquely structure that energy to create information that our bodies detect.Emotions routinely affect how and what we see. Fear, for example, can affect low-level visual processes, sad moods can alter susceptibility to visual illusions, and goal-directed desires can change the apparent size of goal-relevant objects. From a neurobiological perspective, the emotional stimulus is sent to the sensory thalamus which either sends it directly or through the sensory cortex to amygdala (implicated in the processing of emotional stimuli and responses) which provides the emotional response.There are two categories of emotions: Primary (basic) emotions such as: fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, or surprise and Secondary (complex) emotions such as love, guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride, envy or jealousy, which can be defined in two ways: by valence (good vs. bad, positive vs. negative), or by intensity/arousal (low vs. high).6 Witt, J. K. (2011). Action’s effect on perception.7 Barrat D, Zimmerman C, Visual Communication, Slide – Visual perception (2): connection to attention, action, and emotion8Not only is it possible for emotion to influence perception, but in fact it seems to happen quite frequently – across many levels of visual perception and in response to a variety of affective stimuli. Affective valence and arousal carry information about the value and importance of objects and events, and such information is incorporated into visual perception of one’s environment.3 Visualizing dataIn this chapter I will make use of a dataset that contains statistics from “Tour de France”, an annual multiple stage bicycle race, to create a data journalism storyboard.According to information architect and multimedia journalist Mirko Lorenz, data-driven journalism is primarily a workflow that consists of the following elements: digging deep into data by scraping, cleansing and structuring it, filtering by mining for specific information, visualizing and making a story.8 This process can be extended to provide information results that cater to individual interests and the broader public.In this matter, telling stories based on the data is the primary goal. The findings from data can be transformed into any form of journalistic writing. Visualizations can be used to create a clear understanding of a complex situation. Furthermore, elements of storytelling can be used to illustrate what the findings actually mean, from the perspective of someone who is affected by a development.3.1 Data journalism storyboard„What makes Tour de France to become more popular year by year”, represents the starting question as a point of entry, also known as Framing. The story is visualized from different angles, mainly based on performance and evolution in time, and the focus is set on the facts that are increasing year by year or they are above the overall average.Right next to the question, the rates of entrants and finishers this year (2016) compared to the overall average are shown to attract people’s attention. Even though, if I would have to relate to the previous year, the rates would not be so high, I decided to use this calculation in order to have a better starting point, and awake more interest in the story.8 Lorenz, Mirko. (2010). Data driven journalism: What is there to learn?910The first chart that emphasize that the distance is getting shorter over time, is a line chart, because this one reveals trends or progress over time and can be used to show many different categories of data. It is advised to be used when the chart has a continuous data set. It can be noted though, that in this chart there are two gaps and they are represented by the two World Wars, when Tour de France was not held. For this chart, I also used to show the end points, as well as a trend line which can reveal better how the distance is changing over time.The second chart to the right, shows that while the distance is getting shorter, the speed is getting faster and the type used for this is area chart. Area charts usually emphasize the amount of change over time and display a trend in total value. Three annotations are used for this chart that shows the lowest, highest and the latest average speed of the winner, togheter with the year when it was achived. The last annotation, also presents the difference between the average winner’s speed and this one.In the third graph is described the evolution of the rate of finishers compared to the amount of entrants. I could have used a line chart with dual axis, but I found it more appropriate to calculate the rate (finishers/entrants * 100) and show only a simple chart, since it is more clearly to see the progress. The annotation displayed is on the latest point of the graph (2016) which is also the latest tour and contains the number of entrants, finishers as well as the rate. This fact contributes significantly to the main question of the story, because it shows that the competition is getting more intense among participants.The next two graphs that reveals the winner countries, also plays an important role in the story due to the fact that the first ones makes the people to think that France dominates the Grand Tour with 36 wins, but then they will realize that all those wins, were before 1985, which brings the question if the France will remain only a legend at Tour de France.On the bottom right side, I just wanted to emphasize the contrast between the latest knowledge acquired about France remaining a legend in its own country. For this I used a spatial type of flow map, to show that even if many of the tours have started in different cities, they all finished in Paris.11The story based on real and good data, and the presentation was made as attractive as possible using light colors to distinguish the type of charts and graphs but primarily the colors used are aligned with the colors from the Tour de France logo – orange, black white.The goal of this story was to make the audince to remember something from it. Starting from the question „What makes Tour de France to become more popular year by year?”, displaying the increase of performance and evolution of the races and finishing showing that France even though has the most wins in history, has never won for over 30 years, in their own country, I assume that the memory of this story will be „When will France win again?”4 ConclusionIn the beginning of the assignment I tried to answer to two questions. First one gave an overview of the human visual system from both a functional perspective and a neurobiological perspective as well as explaining how the modularity of mind thesis fit in. The second question refered to how does visual perception relate to attention and eye movements, and how does it impact upon various response tendencies such as action and emotion.In the second part of the project I created a data-driven journalism storyboard in order to present the data in an attractive way. This has been created in order to to keep the audience attention and give them some insights about Tour de France. Futhermore, it leaves the reader with a curiosity of finding out what will happen in the future.125 References1. Witt, J. K. (2011). Action’s effect on perception.2. Mack A. and Rock I. (1998). Inattentional Blindness. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.3. J.Fodor (1983). The modularity of mind.4. Jun Lin, James Tsai (2015). The Optic Nerve And Its Visual Link To The Brain. Retrieved from: http://discoveryeye.org/optic-nerve-visual-link-brain/5. Polyak, S. L. (1941). The retina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.6. Barratt, D.H. (1972). Light (Discovering science). World Pub7. Lorenz, Mirko. (2010). Data driven journalism: What is there to learn?8. Barrat D, Zimmerman C, Visual Communication, Slide – Visual perception (2): connection to attention, action, and emotion9. Kaufman, L. (1974). Sight and mind. New York: Oxford University Press10. Stone, J. (1983). Parallel processing in the visual system. New York: Plenum Press11. Howard, I. P. (1982). Human visual orientation. New York : J. Wiley.12. Blakemore C., Carpenter R. H., & Georgeson M. A. (1970). Lateral inhibition between orientation detectors in the human visual system.13. Zadra J.R. & Clore G.C Emotion and Perception: The Role of Affective Information (2011). Retrived from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203022/14. Martinez A.M. (2017). Visual perception of facial expressions of emotion – Retrived from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352250X1730017915. Marin M. (2014). From idea to story: planning the data journalism story – Retrived from: https://schoolofdata.org/2014/05/02/from-idea-to-story-planning-the-data-journalism-story/16. Howard A.B. (2014).The Art and Science of Data-driven Journalism – Retrived from: https://towcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Tow-Center-Data-Driven-Journalism.pdf