2.3 Festival andsatisfactionSatisfaction researches haveshown that satisfaction specifies consumers’ overall evaluation on how theyperceive their consumption experience of a product or service (Fornell,Johnson, Anderson, Cha & Bryant, 1996; Mason & Paggiaro, 2012).
Tourists’ satisfaction, reflecting overallsatisfaction, has frequently been used to investigate the casual relationship betweenfestival attributes and satisfaction in the festival context (Yoon et al.,2010; Akhoondnejad; 2016; Lee, 2016; Harrington, et al., 2017; Yürük et al., 2017). Such studies have demonstrated that tourists’ satisfaction with festivalexperience is a key element to identify why satisfaction is important to the festivaland it is closely related to the satisfaction with the overalldestination. Mason and Paggiaro (2012)emphasised that the element of a high level customer satisfaction had a big pivotalrole in causing a major concern of managing any business, in return, establishinglong-term relationships with tourists (Grappi & Montanari, 2011). The effects of ‘programme content’ onfestival attribute were noteworthy and the ‘programme content’ wassignificantly associated with satisfaction and also it promoted repeatedattendees (Grappi& Montanari, 2011; Lee, Lee, & Choi, 2011).
Thedimension of the programme was the most crucial aspect which influenced tourists’satisfaction (Yoon et al., 2010). Salehand Ryan (1993) found that the programme quality was the significant antecedentin attracting attendees to a jazz and handcrafts festivals. The factor of ‘access to the destination’under the dimension of tourism infrastructure was considered to be important inselecting the tourist destination (Mussalam & Tajeddini, 2016). Yoon et al. (2010) categorized sixdimensions (e.g.
, informational service, programme, souvenir, food, facilityand festival value) to measure ‘festival quality’ and ‘value’ and how thosedimensions influenced visitors’ satisfaction and loyalty and as a result, theyproved that all the dimensions of ‘programme’ (e.g., program was funny, andprogram was varied), souvenirs (e.
g., souvenirs were varied), ‘food’ (e.g.,food was varied, and food price was reasonable) and ‘facilities’ (e.
g.,restroom was clean, and parking facility was convenient) were significantlyrelated to ‘satisfaction’ (e.g., overall, I am satisfied with the festival, andas a whole, I am happy with the festival) except the dimension of ‘informationalservice’ (e.g., pre-informational service enabled me to have a good knowledgeof festival programme and schedule) which was found to be the less importantfactor in explaining the relationship between festival attributes and attendees’satisfaction in the festival context. However, this study included the dimension of ‘informational service’ asmost visitors do not clearly know about the religion of Taegeukdo and howGamcheon culture village was formed based on the Taegeukdo that are excluded byother social members regarding the experience booths with the works of artistswhich can be very difficult to find due to the complicated alleyways.
Thus the factors of ‘pre-informationalservice gave sufficient information about the festival programme and schedule'(Yoon et al., 2010), ‘experiential festival to understand local culture’ (Yoon& Uysal, 2005; Chi & Qu, 2008; Hsu et al., 2014; Mussalam &Tajeddini, 2016), and ‘festival staff provided good guide service’ (Yoon etal., 2010) were an important indicator to examine the relationship withsatisfaction.
In addition, Akhoondnejad(2016) examined how festival authenticity, festival quality, and festival valueimpacted the satisfaction with festival, trust in festival and loyalty tofestival and the results of the study demonstrated that festival authenticity(e.g., local staff), festival quality (e.g., clean environment), festival value(e.
g., festival value) had a positive relationship with satisfaction withfestival (e.g., pleasure). In thisregard, previous empirical researches of festival satisfaction was regarded andthe overall satisfaction which builds on the total consumer experience revealed positive relationships between festivalattributes and satisfaction hence this study has implemented the theoreticalframework of the casual relationship between the festival attributes andsatisfaction. Thus, the following hypotheses were proposed: H1.
Programme and food attributes positively influencesatisfaction with festival.H2. Facility and infrastructure attributes positivelyinfluence satisfaction with festival.
H3. Informational service attribute positivelyinfluences satisfaction with festival. 2.4 Satisfaction and loyalty Customer loyalty is defined as “deeply held commitmentto rebuy or repatronize a preferred product or service consistently in thefuture, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having thepotential to cause switching behavior” (Lee & Back, 2008, p.338).
It has been clearly established why marketresearch feeds into building customer loyalty with their existing customers inprevious literature and identified the importance of customer loyalty in theaspect of constituting a desirable stable revenue source (Zeithaml, Berry, & Parasuraman, 1996). The area of festival is not an exception to thisgeneral rule. Supporting this, there isa very clear evidence: “low switching behavior to competitors, less cost toretain loyal consumers than to create new ones, willingness to pay a pricepremium, and positive word-of–mouth advertising (Lee, Lee, & Yoon, 2009, p. 692). Anumber of festival researches demonstrated that customer loyalty was asignificant indicator of visitors’ intentions to revisit and recommend thespecific destination (Chi & Qu, 2008; Yoon et al.
, 2010; Chang , 2015; Akhoondnejad, 2016; Tanford & Jung, 2017; Yürük et al., 2017). Satisfaction strengthens loyalty (Fornell, et al., 1996) therefore the trend of marketing literatures conducted researchesto understand the relationship betweensatisfaction and loyalty through the specific festival and did not only focus onthe single side of satisfaction or loyalty in the context of festivalmanagement (Chi & Qu, 2008; Yoon etal., 2010; Akhoondnejad, 2016; Tanford & Jung, 2017; Yürük et al.
, 2017). Satisfied attendees tend to have more intentions to revisit the samefestival annually and to recommend the festival to other people such as familyand friends (Drummond & Annderson, 2011). That is, the attendees’ behaviourcontributes to economic impacts of the festival including the local communitythus concerning the dimension of satisfaction and loyalty has been reported tohave a positive relationship and both are very significant determinants tounderstand the attendees’ behaviour from the view of festival planners (Yoon etal., 2010). Measuring loyalty wasaddressed by examining the relationships between destination image,attribute/overall satisfaction, and destination loyalty from conceptual and empiricalstandpoints and found thatsatisfaction affected the attendees’ loyalty (e.g., revisit intention, andrecommend intention) (Chi & Qu, 2008). Akhoondnejad (2016) tested the relationship among festival authenticity(e.
g., unique products, and unique festival), festival quality (e.g., cleanenvironment, and sufficient facilities), festival value (e.
g., value for time,and value for effort), satisfaction (e.g., pleasure, and right decision), trust(e.g.
, confidence, and belief) and loyalty (e.g., revisit intention, andrecommend intention) by applying structural equation modelling. The findings showed that festival value hadan impact on satisfaction and loyalty and the satisfaction with festival had asignificant relationship with loyalty. Yoon et al. (2010) found that quality dimensions influenced perceivedvalue and whether the quality dimensions impacted satisfaction and the loyalty wasa result of this satisfaction by using the structural equation model. The results of the research found that festivalquality dimensions (e.
g., programme, souvenirs, food, and facilities) had animpact on perceived value, these attributes had a significant positiverelationship with visitors’ satisfaction and loyalty (e.g.
, I will keepattending the festival, and I will recommend the festival to my friends andneighbors). Another research showed thatthe programme, activities, and festival atmosphere were the most significant festivalattributes of satisfaction and loyalty (Tanford & Jung, 2017) and they alsorevealed that there was a positive relationship between festival satisfactionwith festival loyalty (e.g., encourage, recommend, and revisit intention). Yürük et al.
(2017) confirmed that the socialimpacts (e.g., community benefits, and quality of life concerns) of events onattendees’ satisfaction, in turn, influenced attendees’ loyalty from theempirical study and a significant positive direct relationship was foundbetween satisfaction and loyalty (e.g., I will keep attending the Kirkpinar oilwrestling festival, and I will keep attending the Kirkpinar oil festival) whichindicated that satisfied attendants and enhanced loyalty was crucial for afestival to succeed. Lee (2016)demonstrated that there was a significant relationship between governmentpolicy and attendees’ loyalty and it appeared that government policy directlyinfluenced attendees’ loyalty (e.
g., I will keep attending the festival if itis held again in the future, and I will recommend this festival to my relativesand friends) and also government policy indirectly had an impact on attendees’loyalty through the mediators of environment quality and satisfaction. Previous literature in relation to the casualrelationship between satisfaction and loyalty in the festival context suggestedthat it was very important for destination planners to invest in festivalresources which would lead to more enticing attendees to go to the festival, asthis showed that they had a better understanding of the attendees’ behaviour onwhy they revisit or keep attending the festival every year. In order to examine satisfied attendees andtheir significant relationship with loyalty which was enhanced by the attendees’experiences to a given alleyways festival of Gamcheon culture village, the followinghypothesis was proposed: H4. Satisfaction with festival positively influencesloyalty to festival. Drawing on the above literature, this study aimed toevaluate the relationships among festival attributes, satisfaction and loyaltyto alleyways festival of Gamcheon culture village.
Fig. 5 depicts thehypotheses of the research model.