2.1 Wheat flourWheat flour is a product that is obtained from thegrinding of wheat and being used widely as staple food for human. Theproduction of wheat flour is more than any other flour.
Wheat were being called”soft” when the gluten content is low, and are called”hard” if the gluten content is high. Hard flour, or bread flour, ishigh in gluten, with 12% to 14% gluten content. Its dough has elastic toughnessthat holds its shape well during baking process and it is suit for bread baking.
Compared to hard flour, soft flour was low in gluten content and thus resultsin a finer and crumbly texture of the bread loaf. Wheat flour rich in carbohydrate which help to provideenergy that we need to get through the day. Besides, it contains protein in theform of gluten. People with celiac disease or gluten intolerance must avoidconsuming wheat flour as it can cause indigestion and inflammation due toexposure to gluten. Moreover, consuming wheat flour will provide us withvitamin B which help in support our metabolism to and help to derived energyfrom our food. 2.
2 Cassava flourWith the rise in popularity of gluten-free baking inrecent years, cassava flour is the one type of flour being choose as a wheatflour substitute in bread making. Not only gluten-free flour, but also grain,and nut free. Cassava flour is made from the whole root of the cassava or yucaplant. The root is peeled and being dried. The roots being shredded into a finemash, by using a machine processor machine or hand-held grater. Then the rootsbeing press and dry, was spread onto a drying rack.
The substance left is thecassava flour. Although cassava and tapioca flour are from the samesource, but they actually are not same. Tapioca flour is the extracted starchfrom the cassava roots and usually used as thickening agent. Cassava flourmostly used for the regular baking and as a cooking flour. Moreover, its starchconcentration is less compared to other flour.
Therefore, it was believed thatthis flour is easier to digest by most people. Cassava flour is a good choicefor people that suffered from health conditions like high blood pressure orcholesterol, diabetes, since it is extremely low in salt, sugar and fat content.As mention before, since it is grain and nut-free, people that have allergiestowards nuts also can consume product that made from cassava flour.2.3 What is gluten?Gluten is a protein that found in grains such as wheat,rye and barley and barley.
Theproteins are secretory proteins, being synthesized on the rough endoplasmicreticulum and co-translationally transported into the lumen of the ER (Kumamaru etal., 2007). Amongthe gluten containing grains, wheat is the most commonly used in industryespecially in bread making.
It contributes to the ability of dough to rise andmaintain its shape and leavened the bread. Glutencomponent proteins are found in the endosperm of mature wheat grain, where theyform a continuous framework around the starch granules. There are two main proteins found in gluten which areglutenin and gliadin and they contribute to the structure of the bread. Mostnegative health effect were come from gliadin. Gliadin contains peptidesequences that are highly resistant to gastric, pancreatic, and intestinalproteolytic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract (R.
B. Jessica, 2017).Glutenin contributes to the elastic character of gluten while gliadincontributes to extensibility. A balance between elasticity and extensibility isnecessary for baking performance specifically in bread making. 2.4 Gluten role in bakingGluten proteins are the most important protein group inbread making. Gluten forms when water is added to flour and is mixed. Duringmixing, addition of water cause a continuous network of protein forms, givingthe dough its strength and elasticity.
This process were called as kneading. Byholding gas produced during fermentation, the protein network allows bread torise. It also allows the dough to maintain its shape. These two functions ofthe protein network are what give bread its chewy texture. 2.5 What happen when we substitute wheat flour with other type offlour in bread making?In bread making, we cannot simply substitute the breadflour or wheat flour with other gluten-free flour. As mention before, glutenprotein that consist of glutenin and gliadin give the bread’s elasticity andextensibility. Therefore, using non-gluten flour will give effect to thefirmness of the bread after baking.
Xanthan gum or other gum that similar to it were beingused as an important ingredients that must be added to gluten-free flour. Theabsence of gluten will make it necessary to have something that can act asgluten substitutes. Xanthan gum was a fermented corn sugar product by using amicrobe called “Xanthomonas caempestris”. This gum is used widely as anadditive in many food products and mostly act as stabilizer and thickeneragent. But nowadays, our market already have gluten-free flour that being addedwith Xanthan gum to make the preparation for baking any product become easier.However, some people do have allergies towards cornproduct and they were advised to avoid this type of gum. Therefore, there wereother alternatives that can be used to substitutes Xanthan gum.
Some productsthat can replace the Xanthan gum are gelatin and agar. Gelatin will givessticky and moist texture inside the bread. It will form gel-like structure whenbeing mixed with water and cause the dough become stretchy.
Gelatin was notsuitable for vegetarians because mostly were being derived from animals.Agar-agar is another choice for vegan to substitute Xanthan gum as it isderived from seaweed. Similar to gelatin, agar-agar was being used asstabilizer and thickener agent as well as the formation of gel-like structurewhen being mixed with water. It will help to stretch the dough and give thefirmness towards the bread.
But, excessive number of agar-agar content willcause the bread becomes very soft and wet.