2.1 political science, proportional and global learning, learning guiding

2.1 Definition of Social Foundations?

Foundations of Education is an interdisciplinary plans those things to see the power
of historical, cultural social and theoretical forces on education. The
interdisciplinary character of the Social Foundations occupation allows us to
welcome prospective students with varied interests and diverse academic
backgrounds, the humanities, and social sciences including education. Explained
by the American Educational Studies organization, it is a
“broadly-conceived meadow of learn that derives its character and
fundamental theories from a quantity of, combinations of disciplines and academic
disciplines, and area studies: history, philosophy, sociology, religion,
anthropology, economics, psychology political science, proportional and global learning,
learning guiding principle studies and learning studies.” Our courses are
also ideal for contributing to the professional development of students in
other human service and administrative professions. Defined by the American
Educational Studies Association, it is a “broadly-conceived field of study
that derives its character and fundamental theories from a number of academic disciplines,
combinations of disciplines, and area studies: history, philosophy, sociology,
anthropology, religion, political science, economics, psychology, comparative
and international education, educational studies, and educational policy
studies.” Social Foundations former students are arranged to work as
teachers and researchers in advanced learning, to advance teaching careers in basic
and secondary schools, or to look for policy-making and investigate positions
in an array of organizations, including schools, legislative, and
non-governmental institutions both in the United States and out of the country.

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Social Foundations offers further than community skills; we are an
accommodating community knowledge group of people. We provide significant,
sensible and in detail social development for our students and perceptive and
substantive education for parents. Social Foundations is a accommodating

Social learning district that helps our students develop their
social acumen from the inside out. We help our students develop firm basics in education
then, perspective flexibility taking and self-regulation they need to build and
keep healthy relations that are necessary to a good life. And we help their
families learn how best to support them as they develop self-assurance and
skill in considerate and navigating all kinds of associations.

2.2 SCFD at OSU

SCFD at OSU is recognized for its rigorous program, its
excellence in teaching and research, and its strong commitment to knowledge
production and methodology conceptualization. The SCFD Ph.D. program requires
rigorous preparation in research design and methodology, and all students are
encouraged to collaborate, present, and publish scholarly papers. Our
internationally respected team of scholars has research expertise in a broad
range of areas and methodologies that can support individual students’
development as scholars. 

2.3 Social Foundations Helps
Special-Needs Kids Build Skills

2.3.1 Built on Michelle Winner’s ‘Social Thinking’
concept, the mom-run Santa Monica business touts social awareness.

Suzanne Tabachnick and Kelly Priest met seven years back in an
early-intervention series for children on the autism spectrum. They have an instantaneous
correlation. Priest has a Master’s degree in clinical psychology and several
years of experience working with families. She attended conferences on “Social
Thinking,” a concept pioneered by speech


pathologist Michelle Winner, and shared her interest in the approach with
Tabachnick, who then completed mentorship and clinical internship training with
Winner at the Center for Social Thinking in San Jose.”Kelly and I kept talking
about all these ideas we had and we realized that together we could do so much
more,” recalls Tabachnick. They launched Social Foundations in 2006 in a small
space in Culver City, which they outgrew in the first five months. They outgrew
their second office in Santa Monica eight months afterward. Currently working since
locations in Santa Monica and Sherman Oaks, Tabachnick and Priest – along with
three therapists and one assistant – have a growing practice focused on
providing kids with practical tools to better understand social cues, interact
in groups and develop friendships. Some of their students are on the autism spectrum;
others have learning differences and some have no specific diagnosis, but face
many social challenges.

learning is about building insight and awareness of yourself and of others
around you,” says Priest. “A lot of the kids we see are not even aware that
their behavior is disturbing further people’s mind-set.”

interactive play and group projects the students begin to better understand
collaboration and consideration for others’ perspectives. By using specific
words and phrases such as “because” or “let’s try this” to explain their
thinking and actions, they turn out to be improved advocates for themselves.
Minister and Tabachnick get great satisfaction when their students receive an
invitation to a party or a sleepover. “It’s so rewarding when parents tell us
their kids are finally making real friends,” says minister. “Our goal be intended
for our students to have typical Childhood experiences … go on camping trips,
be in a play, join a sports team,” adds Tabachnick.

2.4 The social and medical models of disability

There are a number of ‘models’ of disability which have
been defined over the last small number of years. The two most frequently
mentioned are the ‘social’ and the ‘medical’ models of disability. The medical
model of disability views disability as a ‘problem’ that belongs to the
disabled individual. It is not seen as an issue to concern anyone other than
the individual
affected. The social model of disability, in contrast, would see the steps as
the disabling barrier. This model draws on the idea that it is society that
disables people, throughout designing the whole thing to meet the requirements
of the popular of citizens who are not disabled. There is a acknowledgment inside
the social model that there is a great deal that society can do to decrease,
and ultimately remove, some of these disabling barriers, and that this task is
the responsibility of society, rather than the disabled person. For example, if
a wheelchair using student is not capable to get into a building because of
some steps, the medical model would suggest that this is because of the
wheelchair, rather than the steps.


Some examples of a medical model approach might be:

The social model is more inclusive in approach.
Pro-active thought is given to how disabled people can participate in
activities on an equal footing with non-disabled people. Certain adjustments
are made, even where this involves time or money, to ensure that disabled
people are not excluded. The onus is on the organizer of the event or activity
to make sure that their activity is accessible. A course leader who refuses to
produce a hand-out in a larger font for a visually impaired student. The
student cannot therefore participate in the class discussion; A member of staff
who refuses to make available a copy of a PowerPoint presentation before a
lecture. This create a barrier to learning for the dyslexic students in the
group who are likely to have a slower processing and writing speed and who will
struggle to understand and record the key points; A Students’ Union society
that organizes an event that is not accessible to disabled members.

This medical model approach is based on a belief that the
difficulties associated with the disability should be borne wholly by the
disabled person, and that the disabled person should make extra effort (perhaps
in time and/or money) to ensure that they do not inconvenience anyone else
Examples might be:

A Students’ Union society that consults with disabled
members before organizing an event in order to make sure that the venue is

A course leader who meets with a visually impaired member
of the group before the beginning of a course to find out how hand-outs can be
adapted so that the student can read them;

A member of staff who makes PowerPoint presentations
available on Blackboard to all members of the group before a lecture. This
allows dyslexic students to look up unfamiliar terminology before the lecture,
and gives them an idea of the structure that will be followed. This ‘framing’
helps students to understand and retain the information;

Many people are willing to adopt the social model and to
make adjustments for students who have a visible disability. However, they are
not as accommodating with students who have a hidden disability, or a
disability that is not clearly understood. An important principle of the social
model is that the individual is the expert on their requirements in a
particular situation, and that this should be respected, regardless of whether
the disability is obvious or not.

2.5 The Social Model vs. the Medical Model of Disability

Social model of disability

social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is
organized, rather than by a person’s impairment or difference. It looks at ways
of removing barriers that restrict life choices for disabled people. When
barriers are removed, disabled people can be independent and equal in society,
with choice and control over their own lives. Disabled people developed the
social model of disability because the traditional medical model did not
explain their personal experience of disability or help to develop more
inclusive ways of living.

is defined as the limitation of a person’s physical, mental or sensory function
on a long-term basis.)


attitudes to disabled people

are not just physical. Attitudes found in society, based on prejudice or
stereotype (also called (disablism), also disable people from having
equal opportunities to be part of society.

Medical model of disability

social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is
organized. The medical model of disability says people are disabled by their
impairments or differences. Under the medical model, these impairments or
differences should be ‘fixed’ or changed by medical and other treatments, even
when the impairment or difference does not cause pain or illness. The medical
model looks at what is ‘wrong’ with the person and not what the person needs.
It creates low expectations and leads to people losing independence, choice and
control in their own lives.

Social model of disability: some examples

wheelchair user wants to get into a building with a step at the entrance. Under
a social model solution, a ramp would be added to the entrance so that the
wheelchair user is free to go into the building immediately. Using the medical
model, there are very few solutions to help wheelchair users to climb stairs,
which excludes them from many essential and leisure activities


teenager with a learning difficulty wants to work towards living independently
in their own home but is unsure how to pay the rent. Under the social model,
the person would be supported so that they are enabled to pay rent and live in
their own home. Under a medical model, the young person might be expected to
live in a communal home. A child with a visual impairment wants to read
the latest best-selling book to chat about with their sighted friends.
Under the medical model, there are very few solutions but a social model
solution ensures full text audio-recordings are available when the book is
first published. This means children with visual impairments can join in
with cultural activities on an equal basis with everyone else.


Social Foundations of Education draws upon several
disciplines and fields to examine education, namely history, philosophy,
comparative/ international education, cultural studies, sociology, and
political science. Social Foundations inquiry helps to sharpen students’
capacities to understand, analyze, and explain educational issues, policies,
and practices in order to improve education. Thus, the purpose of Social
Foundations study is to draw upon these humanities and social science
disciplines to develop students’ interpretive, normative, and critical
perspectives on education, both inside and outside of schools

(Council for Social Foundations of Education, 1996,




The development of such perspectives helps educators to
“exercise sensitive judgments amidst competing cultural and education values
and beliefs”

(CSFE, 1996). 

Rather than reducing education to a formula for best
practice, courses in the Social Foundations of Education challenge students to
think deeply about the relationships between education (formal and informal)
and society(is) at large.  Social Foundations encourages educator’s use
“critical judgment to question educational assumptions and arrangements and to
identify contradictions and inconsistencies among social and educational values,
policies, and practices” (CSFE, 2004).