1. risk to subject Potential risk can be widely


Informed consent is an authorization verbally or written
agreement to participate in research. Basically, participant involves are
voluntarily without compulsion and there are rational decision to participate.
There is a common procedure to go through before starting any study or
research. Informed consent document must be clearly written and must be
understandable by the participant. The consent must use the easy language and
should be define or explained in lay terms if the words are scientific or there
is medical terms. The informed consent is an important agreement before
register a participant.

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Indeed, the informed consent is described an ethical
codes and legal for human subjects research. The aim of informed consent process
is to provide sufficient detailed information on the study. The participants
are entitled to ask question and researcher must answer those question. Furthermore,
allowing sufficient time for participant to make their decision. Therefore, the
participant will make decision whether they are enroll or not to continue in
the study. However, the participants have the right to refuse to participate in
this study without penalty if they wish.

However, there are some issues relating research on human

Potential risk to subject

Potential risk can be
widely categorized in human research. Researcher need to take precaution to
minimize potential of risk. The potential risk in human research included;

of physical includes injury, physical discomfort, illness or disease cause by
research method and procedure.

risks include the level of muscle tension such as depression, anxiety and loss
of self-esteem.

of legal happened when the method of research violate the law rules designated.
It happen either by exposing the subject or other person engaging in an
activity where the subject can be a criminal.

or economic risk occur due to changes in the relationship between subjects and
others people who are disadvantage such as shame, loss of respect of others and
labeling the subject in a way that bring negative. While economically including
payment by subject to unnecessary procedures, loss of salary and any financial
costs such as damage to the subject’s marketability as a result of
participation in research.


2. Deceptive practice

Deceptive happen when a researcher gives false
information to the subject or deliberately misleads them about some of the key
aspect of research. This may include feedback on the subject involving creating
false beliefs about relationship or the manipulation of self-concept.

3.  Confidentially.

Confidentially needs to be
maintained in order not to leak information. The subjects have the right to be
protected from injury or unauthorized intrusions into their privacy and the
preservation of their personal dignity. Benefits of maintaining confidentially
will help to establish trust between the participant and researcher and
participant feels more respected.