1. restricted sleep as well as poor sleep quality.

1.

  Lund, H. G.,Reider, B. D., Whiting, A.

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B., & Prichard, J. R. (2010). Sleep Patterns          and Predictors of Disturbed Sleep in aLarge Population of College Students. Journalof Adolescent Health, 46, 124-132.doi:10.

1016/j.jadohealth.2009.06.0162.    Collegestudents’ sleep patterns and what disturbs their sleep.

3.    Itwas an observational study.4.    Thevariables involved in this study were behavior, fatigue, academic performance,sleep habits and patterns, and physical, emotional and psychological factors.5.    Sleephabits and patterns, and psychological, physical, and emotionalfacts were predictive variables.

6.    Behavior,academic performance and fatigue werethe predicted variables.7.    Thepurpose of this study was to portray what the causes of lower sleep quality and patterns of sleep incollege students.8.

    Theparticipants were 420 male and 705 female students aged 17-24. This study wasperformed at a private university in the Midwest from a large, private, Midwestuniversity. These students were either entered in a raffle for giftcertificates from $25-$150 value or they could get a class credit for certainpsychology courses.

Of these participants, most were Caucasian at 86%, and therest were Asian or Pacific Islander at 5%, African American at 2%, biracial at2%, American Indian or Alaskan Native at 1%, and Hispanic at 0.4% (3% did notspecify or chose other). 9.    Thefollowing materials were used: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index whichmeasures seven factors affecting sleep over the last month on a 0-3 scale, 3being the worst.

The Epworth Sleepiness Scale has eight items, checking how tiredthe participant has felt over the past 6 months, also on a 0-3 scale, 3 beingthe sleepiest. The Horne-Ostberg Morningness Eveningness Scale whereparticipants select time preferences for activities between 5:00 a.m. and 12:00p.m. The Subjective Units of Distress Scale measures participants’ level ofstress. The Profile of Mood States measures how much participants feeldepression, tension, fatigue, confusion, vigor, and anger.

10. Anemail was sent to the eligible students and a survey was up online in themiddle of the semester for 4 weeks. After finishing the survey students couldgo to a different site to enter the raffle.11.

Theresult was that college students have chronically restricted sleep as well aspoor sleep quality. Inferior quality sleepers have higher negative mood scoresand more illness. These sleepers also drink more alcohol than others and ingestmore prescription medications to stay awake. The largest cause for poor sleepquality was reported to be stress.