1. refers to knowledge we bring to the perceptual

1.     Name and briefly describe the four
categories of the perceptual process.


what is going on in the environment, and the things that we pay attention too.

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refers to the electrical signals that are created by the
receptors and transmitted to the brain.

refers to knowledge we bring to the perceptual situation.


and Action: refers to our goal—to perceive, recognize, and react to the





2.     (a) Define “top-down” and
“bottom-up” processing.



processing; refers to processing that is based on knowledge


processing; is processing that is based on incoming data.




     (b) Discuss how the “rat-man”
demonstration is used to exemplify the distinction 

            between these two types of


The rat–man demonstration shows how recently acquired knowledge (“that pattern is a rat”) can
influence perception. When individuals are initially shown a figure that looks like a rat, they are more likely
to identify an ambiguous rat-man figure as a rat while those who initially see a man are more likely to
identify it as a man,




3.      Name and describe three classical
psychophysical methods.



of limits; stimulus changes in sequential steps
-stop measuring when threshold is found
-threshold is an average of reversal or crossover points





of adjustment; -used for measuring the difference in
thresholds not the absolute threshold
-observer controls the stimulus on a sliding scale





Method of constant stimuli; present several values of the
stimulus to be detected then calculate the detection of discrimination of each




4. Discuss
how the slopes of the lines of the plot relate to the concepts of response  

    compression and response expansion. State
how these slopes relate to Stevens’s Power L