1.INTRODUCTION Wastesthat do not fall into the concept of hazardous and harmful waste from publicplaces such as houses, gardens, parks and picnic areas, which do not form wastewith industrial contents, are generally referred to as domestic waste. Dailyroutine activities are classified into hazardous and harmful waste class whichcan occur in the aftermath house environment. The amount of waste per capita inour country is 0.
6 kg per day, and 1 kg of domestic solid waste is produced onaverage. According to this, it is estimated that about 27,000 tons of domesticsolid waste per year is produced between 55,000 to 60,000 tons per day onaverage.1Turkey Statistical Institute (TSI) in Turkey in 2008, according to datacollected from the municipal waste collection and transport about 25 milliontons of waste;· 41.3% were in themunicipal waste,· 9.3% were in themetropolitan municipality garbage,· 1.4% in other municipalgarbage,· 1% was burned openly,· 0.4% were buried,· 0.2% was poured by duckand lake,· 44.
9% of them are inregular storage areas,· 1,1% were taken tocomposting plants and processed in appropriate processes. Municipalwastes are generally classified as non-hazardous and consist of wastesoriginating from houses or content or structurally similar.Economic growth inthe industrial area in Turkey; urbanization, population growth, waste types,need mass both volume instead of establishing a separate waste managementsystem for each type of waste resulting increase in the value of all the wasteinto space reveals the need for an integrated approach. According to theresults of the study on the determination of the domestic waste content in thescope of the Solid Waste Master Plan Project (KAAP) carried out in 2006, 34% ofthe domestic wastes are organic wastes from the kitchen, about 22% arenon-combustible materials, 19% while the remaining 25% constitutes packagingwaste. These results also show the contribution that municipal wastes willprovide to the economy of the country as a result of decomposing and recyclingor returning before domestic waste is sent to collection centers. 2.
DOMEST?C WASTE ANDENV?RONMENTAL DAMAGE 2.1.Effects On Air Householdwastes have various damages to economic, environmental and human health.2Non-removableand non-stored wastes cause environmental pollution to a considerable extent,affecting public health in a negative way. After the rains, the waters leakingfrom the garbage fields cause the groundwater to pollute. There are odorproblems in garbage poured areas. In case of throwing the waste pills intotrash, soil, seas, rivers and sewers, or burning them, the heavy metals theycontain may pollute the environment.
3Wasteoils; reduces oxygen in water. Microorganisms that are fed with waste oil inwater are formed, and these microorganisms reach carcinogenic people througheating fish and other living things. Frying oils; when it is poured into thesea, lakes and rivers, it prevents the oxygen transfer from air to water bycovering the surface of the water, causing the death of fishes and other livingthings. When the frying oil is poured into the sink, it adheres to the drainsystem, causing the wastes in the sewage pipe to stick to the pipe wall,causing the pipe to become narrowed and the sewer system to become unusableover time.
Used frying oils cause pollution of groundwater, which is animportant source of drinking water. FinishedTires; mosquitoes and rats, as well as the spread of epidemic diseases. Thesemasses cause fires that can not be extinguished for days. These fires spreadtons of toxic gases such as DIOXIN-FURAN in a black cloud in the atmosphere.These atmospheric pollutants cause direct pollution of human health as well ascontamination of nearby land and water. In developing societies, there is a rightratio between consumption habits of people and the quantity and composition ofconsumer goods solid wastes.
Particularly in recent years, with the incidentsof migration from the villages to the cities, the production in our country hasdecreased and the consumer society has begun to become. In recent years,together with the developing packaging industry, the production of materialswhich enables the purchase of products in very small quantities and which willensure the long-term storage of the received products has begun. Asa result of the good disposal of these packages, environmental pollutionoccurs, which in turn has an effect on the minus both biologically andeconomically. A paper handkerchief that has been left to the nature can bedestroyed in 3 months, an apple garbage in 6 months, a glass bottle in 4000years.
For this reason, the recovery of these packages is very important.Because of the recycling of these wastes, natural resources are protected andat the same time energy saving is provided. However, the amount of waste in theenvironment starts to decrease and it means investment for the future andeconomically.3.
DEF?N?T?ON OFRECYCL?NG 3.1.Purpose of Recycling Recyclingis the recycling of wastes that can be reevaluated through various physical andchemical processes to be converted into secondary raw material and included inthe production process. It can be defined as recycling waste materials that arenot used in any way by another definition, and recycling them as raw materialsthrough various recycling methods. The purpose of recycling; to prevent theunnecessary use of resources and to reduce the amount of waste garbage togetherwith the separation of waste at the source. Recycling and reuse of materialssuch as iron, steel, copper, lead, paper, plastic, rubber, glass, electronicwaste will prevent the depletion of natural resources. This situation; it willalso reduce the amount of foreign exchange paid to imported scrap material tomeet the needs of countries, and will save a great deal of the energy used.
3.2.Proportions and Availability of Domestic Waste 4Useof recycled paper in paper manufacture can be avoided by reducing air pollutionby 74-94%, water pollution by 35%, water use by 45%, and the addition of oneton of waste paper to paper pulp. Energy saving is achieved because the numberof industrial processes in recycled material decreases. In the recycling ofmetal beverage boxes, the metal is directly melted and converted into a newproduct. In this way, neither the mineral ore used for production nor theprocesses applied for the purification of the mine are required.
In this way anenergy saving of 96% can be achieved by recycling an aluminum can. Similarly,the energy required to recycle the paper separated in solid wastes is up to 50%of that required for normal operations. In the same way, glass and plasticwaste can be recycled in a considerable amount of energy saving. Recycling is aproductive economic investment in the long run.
Reductions in crude oil andrapid depletion of natural resources can lead to economic problems, and at thispoint recycling will be positive on the economy. It will provide new businessopportunities and provide future generations with access to natural resources.On the other hand, as mentioned above, it will also be possible tosignificantly reduce environmental pollution by reducing the amount of solidwastes to be disposed of for recycling purposes.
The reduction of the amount ofsolid waste and volume is a great advantage especially for countries wherethere is not enough space to regularly dispose of solid waste. When theserecyclable wastes are mixed with normal garbage, the secondary materialsproduced from these materials are of much lower quality and may cause problemsin the cleaning process. Therefore, the most important step of the recyclingprocess is the separation at the source and the separate collection.
3.3.Recyclable Wastes,Steps and Benefits Recycling requires different methods for eachmaterial.Waste aluminum is chopped into small particles.These pieces are thenmelted in large quarries and cast aluminum is produced. In this case, wastealuminum becomes almost the same as pure aluminum and can be used inproduction.
5Withaluminum recovery, the reduction in energy consumption is 95%, the decrease inair pollution is 90%, the decrease in water pollution is 97%, the reduction inthe emission of pollutant gas is 99% When a kilogram of aluminum box isrecovered; The use of 8 kg bauxite metal, 4 kg chemical and 14 kW / hr electricenergy is preserved. When one of the aluminum beverage boxes is recovered, theelectricity consumed in 35 hours of a lamp of 100 kW / hour or 30 hours of a TVis protected. ton is produced from aluminum used aluminum; 1300 kg of bauxite,15000 liters of coolant, 860 liters of process water, 2000 kg of CO2 and 11 kgof SO2 emissions.
Metal packaging wastes collected separately fromdomestic wastes are first separated according to the materials in collectioncollection facilities. Here, with the help of large magnet systems, aluminum,steel etc. in the stack.
are separated from each other. The collected packagingwaste is pressed for ease of transportation and storage. Thus, the volume isreduced. As a result of this operation, metal packages are processed. First,physical grinding is performed. After grinding, it is melted in high-gradefurnaces.
Metal blocks are formed by pouring molten mold. These formed metalblocks are pressed to the desired thickness. It becomes ready to fill afterproperly shaping all kinds of packaging such as aerosol, beverage crate, paintcans. The paper is first separated into fibers in water forthe preparation of the paper mud. If necessary, it is subjected to cleaningprocess for non-fiber foreign materials. As the ink separator, sodium hydroxideor sodium carbonate is used. Later, paper fibers are used in the production ofrecycled paper. Waste paper can not be recovered continuously.
In eachrecovery, the length of the fibers is shortened and no new paper can beproduced without the addition of adjuncts to bond the fibers.1 When tons ofused paper are recycled, carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas, can be disposed offrom the air to 12400 m3. Continuing to produce 12400 m3 oxygengas,Conservation of 17 adult trees that provide oxygen for 34 people, saving 32m3 of water consumed by 3 families per month, saving 1750 liters of fuel-oilfor warming in the winter months and consuming two family members, saving about-2.4 m3 of garbage storage, 4100 kW / h of electricity can be saved. Plastic wastes are first sorted according to theirtype and recycled. Recyclable plastic wastes separated by type are broken incrushing machines and separated into small pieces. Businesses can use thesepieces directly at certain ratios in the production process by mixing them withthe original raw material; It can also be used as a second grade raw materialby melting and re-adding additives. When used plastics are recycled andrecycled, new coats, industrial fibers, work hat, grocery stalls, school andoffice parts, golf and tennis equipment, garden furniture corner stones, It ispossible to obtain new plastic products such as pots, benches, car spare parts,water meter box, buckets, carpet material and drain pipes.
The followingproducts are obtained from PET recycling; carpet bases, sleeping bags, clothingin the garment, car parts, paint brushes, life saving cushions, bags, mailboxes, picnic tables, fences, hiking boots, dual compartment buckets, lasertoner cartridges, belts and geotextiles.Plastic Recycling; 1050 recycledplastics can be made of a seating group for 6 people. If a 2.5 liter plasticbottle is recycled and used in production, it can save 60 watts of electricalenergy for 6 hours. If a 2 liter beverage bottle is recycled, you can get aplastic sweater of this material .25 a used plastic swollen jacket can beproduced. A sleeping bag can be made from 35 pieces of 2.
5 liter used PETbottles. There are three groups of substances in thecomposition of the glass. These are the so-called oxides, melts and stabilizerswhich can be formed into glass. The bottles, jars, glass cups, vases and otherglass wastes are collected separately in the collection boxes or at the placeswhere the waste is generated and these wastes are separated according to theircolors and given to the recycling plants. Here waste and additives areseparated. The glass materials are broken and mixed into the raw materialmixture and poured into melting furnaces.
It is also used as broken glass,concrete admixture and glass asphalt. Camasfalta contains about 30% recycledglass. At least one of the three glass packages we use is made from recycledglass. Waste glass bottles and jars are used in glass packaging production.
Theenergy saved in the recycling of a glass bottle is: 1 hour for a 100 watt bulb,25 minutes for a computer, 20 minutes for a television, 10 minutes for awashing machine it is identical.Benefits of Glass Recycling;· Decreasein energy consumption 25%· Decreasein Air Pollution by 20%· Decreasein mining waste 80%· Decreasein Water Consumption 50%· Protectednatural resources: sand, soda, lime Since the composite packages collected are obtained byusing many materials together, the recycling process also consists of complexsteps. After grinding and separating, the paper and the aluminum / polyethylenepart are separated from each other. The recovered paper can be used in theproduction of articles such as tissue paper, toilet paper and corrugatedcardboard by passing through a recycled paper recycling process. The remaining portion(Aluminum and Polyethylene / or other material) can be used as additional fuelsince the calorific values ??are high in cement factories after the paper parthas been separated.
It can also be recycled in the same way for energypurposes. Another practice is the products produced in our country with thename of a jacket. Composite packages are crushed and grinded, then compressedin a press to produce a chipboard-like material.
The resulting product is awater and napkin resistant material that can be used in the construction ofgarden furniture. CONCLUISON As a result, many useful things are being produced with domestichousehold wastes. Countriesthat use recycling beneficially have seen many benefits of it.
In addition to decreasingrenewable energy resources, the energy produced by these wastes is of economicimportance and will be very useful for human health. Since these wastes are in the process of disappearing in nature,it is necessary for people to become aware and to give importance to therecycling.Otherwise,these wastes left to the nature will cause serious damage all over the world. REFERENCESTürkiye ?statistik Kurumu (2014) “2010 ve 2012Verileriyle Türkiye’de Belediye At?k ?statistikleri” http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.
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