1. damage. Due to the core function of astrocyte

1. Upper motor neurons reside in the cerebral cortex and projects to the spinal cord where they
connect with the lower motor neurons. The inception and induction of
complicated voluntary actions is the primary role of the upper motor neurons. Lower motor neurons act as the signal conduit
between the upper motor neurons and the skeletal muscles to be innervated.  The upper and lower motor neuron are linked
with interneurons in the spinal cord and hence lower motor neurons originate in
this region and extend to the muscle. While the upper motor neuron triggers the
signal for skeletal movement, the execution of the movement is mediated by the
lower motor neuron.


2. Astrocytes
are multi-taskers as they perform diverse roles from logistical support thru
the shipment of nutrients, juggling the correct ion concentration and
reconstruction during neuronal damage. Due to the core function of astrocyte with
repair and maintenance, reactive astrongliosis as response to injury and
infection is a hallmark feature of CNS disturbance.

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Microglia is the devourer of plaques, injured  neurons and synapses and pathogens in the central nervous system.

 The antipodal extremes of low activity (Autism) to over activity (Alzheimer’s)
produces pathological effects.


Oligodendrocytes produces myelin
sheath to cover
axons as insulation in the central nervous system. Lack of myelination occurs
when oligodendrocytes die, and unmyelinated neurons cannot function properly as
seen in multiple sclerosis.


3. “Penicillin cures, but wine makes
people happy.” -Alexander Flemming


Wine is believed to be targeting GABA receptors which allow the entry of
chloride ions with a net inhibitory effect. Hence inhibiting GABA is a
potential therapeutic target (other antidepressants are targeting GABA). While
GABAnergic neurons are also located in the cerebellum, hence the reduction of
motor balance when one consumes wine, a more targeted GABA drug acting solely
on The brain circuits in
the amygdala are thought to comprise inhibitory networks of ?-aminobutyric
acid-ergic (GABAergic) interneurons and this neurotransmitter thus plays a key
role in the modulation of anxiety responses both in the normal and pathological